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Nov 19 06 6:25 PM
Quote:November 17, 2006 R.I.P. Buddha and Welcome RabbitMany of you received my newsletter where I mentioned that our beloved rabbit, Buddha, just died on Tuesday. This was a huge shock to us, but Buddha was somewhere between six and eight years old, so this is a relatively normal lifespan for a bunny. We only had her four of those years, because she had been dumped on the side of the road near our bike path down in New Jersey.So, to keep the Buddha legacy going, we decided to honor her memory by going to adopt a new bunny and give him or her as good or better a home than Buddha had.So, we looked around a bit -- and in a local animal shelter found a beautiful dark-haired rabbit who just arrived today. She is healthy and beautiful, and we're not quite sure of her age because the people who passed her to the shelter did not mention her age at all.Anyway, here are our first 2 pictures of her. Her eyes aren't red but brown, and that little glow by my finger and her nose is just the flash.douglasclegg.c
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May 7 10 11:26 AM
Published: 6 May 10 20:26 CETOnline: http://www.thelocal.de/sci-tech/20100506-27033.html
For the first time ever, German scientists have drafted a genome sequence for the Neanderthal and believe their results show that the extinct hominid interbred with humans.
External link: Max Planck Institute »
The Local ([email protected])
The Vindija cave in Croatia where three small Neanderthal bones were found.
Neanderthals mated with some modern humans after all and left their imprint in the human genome, a team of biologists has reported in the first detailed analysis of the Neanderthal genetic sequence.
The Neanderthal DNA that Svante Pääbo analyzed came from these three bones.
The biologists, led by Svante Paabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have been slowly reconstructing the genome of Neanderthals, the stocky hunters that dominated Europe until 30,000 years ago, by extracting the fragments of DNA that still exist in their fossil bones. Just last year, when the biologists first announced that they had decoded the Neanderthal genome, they reported no significant evidence of interbreeding.
Scientists say they have recovered 60 percent of the genome so far and hope to complete it. By comparing that genome with those of various present day humans, the team concluded that about 1 percent to 4 percent of the genome of non-Africans today is derived from Neanderthals. But the Neanderthal DNA does not seem to have played a great role in human evolution, they said.
Experts believe that the Neanderthal genome sequence will be of extraordinary importance in understanding human evolutionary history since the two species split some 600,000 years ago.
So far, the team has identified only about 100 genes — surprisingly few — that have contributed to the evolution of modern humans since the split. The nature of the genes in humans that differ from those of Neanderthals is of particular interest because they bear on what it means to be human, or at least not Neanderthal. Some of the genes seem to be involved in cognitive function and others in bone structure.
“Seven years ago, I really thought that it would remain impossible in my lifetime to sequence the whole Neanderthal genome,” Dr. Paabo said at a news conference. But the Leipzig team’s second conclusion, that there was probably interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans before Europeans and Asians split, is being met with reserve by some archaeologists.
A degree of interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals in Europe would not be greatly surprising given that the species overlapped there from 44,000 years ago when modern humans first entered Europe to 30,000 years ago when the last Neanderthals fell extinct. Archaeologists have been debating for years whether the fossil record shows evidence of individuals with mixed features.
The Leipzig scientists assert that the interbreeding did not occur in Europe but in the Middle East and at a much earlier period, some 100,000 to 60,000 years ago, before the modern human populations of Europe and East Asia split. There is much less archaeological evidence for an overlap between modern humans and Neanderthals at this time and place.
Dr. Paabo has pioneered the extraction and analysis of ancient DNA from fossil bones, overcoming daunting obstacles over the last 13 years in his pursuit of the Neanderthal genome. Neanderthal bones are extensively similar to Neanderthal DNA. The DNA he has analyzed comes from three small bones from the Vindija cave in Croatia.
“This is a fabulous achievement,” said Ian Tattersall, a paleontologist at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, referring to the draft Neanderthal genome that Dr. Paabo’s team describes in Thursday’s issue of Science.
Dr. Paabo’s group has taken extra precautions but it remains to be seen how successful they have been, Dr. Klein said, especially as another group at the Leipzig institute, presumably using the same methods, has obtained results that Dr. Paabo said he could not confirm.
Dr. Paabo said that episode of human-Neanderthal breeding implied by Dr. Reich’s statistics most plausibly occurred “in the Middle East where the first modern humans appear before 100,000 years ago and there were Neanderthals until 60,000 years ago.” According to Dr. Klein, people in Africa expanded their range and reached just Israel during a warm period some 120,000 years ago. They retreated during a cold period some 80,000 years ago and were replaced by Neanderthals. It is not clear whether or not they overlapped with Neanderthals, he said.
These humans, in any case, were not fully modern and they did not expand from Africa, an episode that occurred some 30,000 years later. If there was any interbreeding, the flow of genes should have been both ways, Dr. Klein said, but Dr. Paabo’s group sees evidence for gene flow only from Neanderthals to modern humans.
The Leipzig group’s interbreeding theory would undercut the present belief that all human populations today draw from the same gene pool that existed a mere 50,000 years ago. “What we falsify here is the strong out-of-Africa hypothesis that everyone comes from the same population,” Dr. Paabo said.
In his and Dr. Reich’s view, Neanderthals interbred only with non-Africans, the people who left Africa, which would mean that non-Africans drew from a second gene pool not available to Africans.Our Inner Neanderthal
If things had gone differently, this editorial might have been written by a Neanderthal contemplating the discovery that a small but significant portion of his or her DNA was derived from ancestral humans, who lost out in the struggle for survival some 30,000 years ago. Things went the other way, and this editorial is being written by a human musing on the recent discovery that 1 percent to 4 percent of our human DNA is derived from Neanderthals.
That does not sound like a very large percentage. But it is the clearest evidence so far that some interbreeding occurred between humans and Neanderthals. The research, led by a team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and published last week in Science, is also evidence of how much skill scientists have gained in obtaining and decoding DNA samples from ancient bones.
The team compared genome sequences from three Neanderthals — dating from roughly 38,000 to 44,000 years ago — to sequences from five present-day humans from various parts of the world. In addition to the likelihood of interbreeding, the research shows that Neanderthals are closer to humans of European and Asian origin than they are to humans of African origin.
Neanderthal fossils have been found only in Europe and western Asia. Yet the similarity to Chinese and Papuan genomic sequences is just as close, even though no Neanderthal fossils have been found there. It suggests that one possible location for the mixing of Neanderthals and ancestral non-African humans is the Middle East, where they may have overlapped for more than 50,000 years. Humans have always told tales of their ancestry. New scientific techniques are giving us a more complex story to tell.
ScienceDaily (10 Aug. 2007) — In 1942, a human braincase was found in Romania during phosphate mining. The skull’s geological age has remained uncertain. Now, new radiocarbon analysis appearing in the August issue of Current Anthropology directly dates the skull to approximately 33,000 years ago, placing it in the Upper Paleolithic.Though this braincase is in many ways similar to other known specimens from the period, the fossil also presents a distinctly Neanderthal feature, ubiquitous among Neanderthals, extremely rare among archaic humans, and unknown among prior modern humans. “The mosaic is most parsimoniously explained as the result of a modest level of admixture with [Neanderthals] as modern humans dispersed across Europe,” write Andrei Soficaru (Institutul de Anthropologie, Romania), Catalin Petrea (Institutul de Speologie, Romania), Adiran Dobos (Institutl de Arheologie, Romania), and Erik Trinkaus (Washington University, St. Louis). “Given the reproductive compatibility of many closely related species and the culturally mediated nature of mate choice in humans, such admixture should neither be rare nor unexpected.”Known as the Cioclovina 1 neurocranium, the skull is one of a very small number of European early modern humans securely dated prior to ca. 28,000 before present. It is unusual in its preservation, showing little signs of external abrasion and no carnivore damage to the bone. The person’s age-at-death was probably somewhere in the 40’s, “best considered mature, but not geriatric,” the authors write.The skull has been described from the outset as that of an early modern human, due to ear anatomy, details of the neck muscle attachments, and the presence of a high, rounded braincase. The lateral bones resemble those of recent human males. However, the area above the neck muscles contains a distinctly Neanderthal feature, a suprainiac fossa – a groove above the inion, or, the place on the bone at the lower back of a human skull that juts out the farthest. “This feature implies some level of Neanderthal ancestry in this otherwise modern human fossil,” the authors explain. “It joins other early modern European fossils, from the sites of Oase and Muierii in Romania, Mlasdec in the Czech Republic, and Les Rois in France in indicating some degree of Neanderthal admixture occurred when modern humans spread across Europe starting around 40,000 years ago.”
Reference: Andrei Soficaru, Catalin Petrea, Adiran Dobos, and Erik Trinkaus. “The Human Cranium from the Pestera Cioclovina Uscata, Romania.” Current Anthropology 48:4.
May 15 10 8:29 AM
By HENRY FOUNTAIN
Neanderthals were different from you and me, the thinking goes, because they were cognitively inferior. For one thing, they appeared to be incapable of symbolic thinking, of using something to represent something else.
A shell discovered in Spain that dates from about 50,000 years ago. This composite image shows the natural color of the interior on the left, and the external side, which may at one time have been painted to match, on the right.
Some humans in Africa, for example, adorned their bodies with stained seashells more than 100,000 years ago. To them, a shell wasn’t just a shell, but a way to signify individuality. But evidence of similar behavior by Neanderthals has been discounted.
Now, though, archeologists working in the Murcia region of southeastern Spain report in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that they have found solid signs that Neanderthals were using seashells in a decorative and symbolic way.
João Zilhão of the University of Bristol in England and colleagues studied shells found in two caves far from the shoreline and dating from about 50,000 years ago, 10,000 years before modern humans showed up in Europe.
Cockle and scallop shells had holes that most likely were created naturally. Yet the holes were generally of the same size, suggesting the Neanderthals picked shells that were good for stringing.
The shells had bits of pigment on them, an indication that at one time they were painted. One scallop shell appeared to have been painted red on the outside to match natural coloring on the inside. The shell is broken and is “clearly something that was worn and discarded,” Dr. Zilhão said. Another shell, from a thorny oyster, contained a small amount of a ground pigmented substance that appeared to be a cosmetic or body paint.
Objects and compounds like these would have been used to “tell other people who you are,” Dr. Zilhão said. “They are like socially recognizable identity cards.”
What’s more, he said, “this is exactly how the same kinds of objects and finds are interpreted in early modern human contexts.” Both humans and Neanderthals “behaved in the same way to the extent that we have information to assess it.”
May 15 10 8:49 AM
Some people can’t perceive bitter tastes very well. Now a study from Spain shows that some Neanderthals were in the same boat.
Bitter taste perception in humans has been studied most thoroughly with a bitter-tasting chemical, PTC, that is related to compounds in Brussels sprouts and similar foods. About one-quarter of people don’t taste PTC.A gene, TAS2R38, encodes proteins that are part of taste receptors on the tongue. There are several variants of the gene, a dominant “taster” type and a recessive “nontaster” type, which occur with about the same frequency. Only if a person inherits a recessive type from both parents would she be unable to taste PTC.
Carles Lalueza-Fox of the Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-UPF) in Barcelona and colleagues looked at the TAS2R38 gene in a sample from a 48,000-year-old Neanderthal bone collected at a site in northern Spain. They found similar variations in the gene, and determined that the individual had one dominant form and one recessive form. That means the Neanderthal could perceive bitter taste.
The scientists say the findings, which were reported in Biology Letters, show that variation in bitterness perception started to appear before human and Neanderthal lineages began to diverge a half-million years ago or more.
ScienceDaily (19 Jan. 2006) — The disappearance of Neanderthals is frequently attributed to competition from modern humans, whose greater intelligence has been widely supposed to make them more efficient as hunters. However, a new study forthcoming in the February issue of Current Anthropology argues that the hunting practices of Neanderthals and early modern humans were largely indistinguishable, a conclusion leading to a different explanation, also based on archaeological data, to explain the disappearance of the Neanderthals. This study has important implications for debates surrounding behavioral evolution and the practices that eventually allowed modern humans like ourselves to displace other closely-related species."Each population was equally and independently capable of acquiring and exploiting critical information pertaining to animal availability and behavior," write the anthropologists, from the University of Connecticut, University of Haifa, Hebrew University, and Harvard University. The researchers use new archaeological data from a Middle- and Upper-Paleolithic rock shelter in the Georgian Republic dated to 60,000-20,000 years ago to contest some prior models of the perceived behavioral and cognitive differences between Neanderthals and modern humans. Instead, the researchers suggest that developments in the social realm of modern human life, allowing routine use of distant resources and more extensive division of labor, may be better indicators of why Neanderthals disappeared than hunting practices. "The establishment of larger social networks allowed the replacement of Neanderthals in the Caucasus," write the authors. "Our study also indicates that this process of replacement by modern humans spread beyond the traditional biogeographical barrier [of] Neanderthal mobility represented by the Caucasus Mountains."
ScienceDaily (26 Aug. 2008) — Research by UK and American scientists has struck another blow to the theory that Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) became extinct because they were less intelligent than our ancestors (Homo sapiens). The research team has shown that early stone tool technologies developed by our species, Homo sapiens, were no more efficient than those used by Neanderthals.Published in the Journal of Human Evolution, their discovery debunks a textbook belief held by archaeologists for more than 60 years.The team from the University of Exeter, Southern Methodist University, Texas State University, and the Think Computer Corporation, spent three years flintknapping (producing stone tools). They recreated stone tools known as 'flakes,' which were wider tools originally used by both Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, and 'blades,' a narrower stone tool later adopted by Homo sapiens. Archaeologists often use the development of stone blades and their assumed efficiency as proof of Homo sapiens' superior intellect. To test this, the team analysed the data to compare the number of tools produced, how much cutting-edge was created, the efficiency in consuming raw material and how long tools lasted.Blades were first produced by Homo sapiens during their colonization of Europe...approximately 40,000 years ago. This has traditionally been thought to be a dramatic technological advance, helping Homo sapiens out-compete, and eventually eradicate, their Stone Age cousins. Yet when the research team analysed their data there was no statistical difference between the efficiency of the two technologies. In fact, their findings showed that in some respects the flakes favoured by Neanderthals were more efficient than the blades adopted by Homo sapiens........Many long-held beliefs suggesting why the Neanderthals went extinct have been debunked in recent years. Research has already shown that Neanderthals were as good at hunting as Homo sapiens and had no clear disadvantage in their ability to communicate. Now, these latest findings add to the growing evidence that Neanderthals were no less intelligent than our ancestors.Metin Eren, an MA Experimental Archaeology student at the University of Exeter and lead author on the paper comments: "Our research disputes a major pillar holding up the long-held assumption that Homo sapiens were more advanced than Neanderthals. It is time for archaeologists to start searching for other reasons why Neanderthals became extinct while our ancestors survived. Technologically speaking, there is no clear advantage of one tool over the other. When we think of Neanderthals, we need to stop thinking in terms of 'stupid' or 'less advanced' and more in terms of 'different.'"Now that it is established that there is no technical advantage to blades, why did Homo sapiens adopt this technology during their colonization of Europe? The researchers suggest that the reason for this shift may be more cultural or symbolic. Eren explains: "Colonizing a continent isn't easy. Colonizing a continent during the Ice Age is even harder. So, for early Homo sapiens colonizing Ice Age Europe, a new shared and flashy-looking technology might serve as one form of social glue by which larger social networks were bonded. Thus, during hard times and resource droughts these larger social networks might act like a type of 'life insurance,' ensuring exchange and trade among members on the same 'team.'"The University of Exeter is the only university in the world to offer a degree course in Experimental Archaeology. This strand of archaeology focuses on understanding how people lived in the past by recreating their activities and replicating their technologies. Eren says: "It was only by spending three years in the lab learning how to physically make these tools that we were able to finally replicate them accurately enough to come up with our findings."This research was funded by the National Science Foundation of the USA and the Exeter Graduation Fund.
ScienceDaily (Sep. 9, 2008) — Neanderthals had a brain at birth of a similar size to that of modern-day babies. However, after birth, their brain grew more quickly than it does for Homo sapiens and became larger too. Nevertheless, the individual lifespan ran just as slowly as it does for modern human beings.
These new insights into the history of human evolution are being presented in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, by researchers from the University of Zurich.
Dr. Marcia Ponce de León and Prof. Christoph Zollikofer from the Anthropological Institute of the University of Zurich examined the birth and the brain development of a newborn Neanderthal baby from the Mezmaiskaya Cave in the Crimea. That Neanderthal child, which died shortly after it was born, was evidently buried with such care that it was able to be recovered in good condition from the cave sediments of the Ice Age after resting for approximately 40,000 years.
The only well-preserved find of a fossil newborn known to date provides new information on how, in the course of evolution, the very special kind of individual human development has crystallised. Dr. Marcia Ponce de León and Prof. Zollikofer reconstructed the skeleton on the computer from 141 individual parts. They discovered that the brain at the time of birth was of exactly the same size as a typical human newborn. It had a volume of about 400 cubic centimetres. However, the skeleton was considerably more robustly formed than that of a modern human newborn.
In order to clarify whether the head of a Neanderthal newborn baby, like today's human, still fits through the birth canal of the mother's pelvis, they reconstructed a female Neanderthal pelvis which had already been found in the 1930s. This enabled the process of birth to be simulated. The computer reconstruction shows that the birth canal of this woman was wider than that of a Homo sapiens mother, but the head of the Neanderthal newborn was somewhat longer than that of a human newborn because of its relatively robust face.
This meant that for the Neanderthals, the birth was probably about as difficult as it is for our own race. "The brain size of a newborn of 400 cubic centimetres is probably an evolutionary birth limit which had already been reached with the last common ancestors of human beings and Neanderthals" concludes Zollikofer. "That would mean that for the last 500,000 years, we have been paying a high evolutionary price in the form of birth problems for our large brain."
To study the development after birth, the researchers examined not only the Mezmaiskaya newborn but also other Neanderthal children up to an age of approximately 4. It is astonishing that the Neanderthal brain grew even more quickly during childhood than that of Homo sapiens. Until now, one has assumed that the consequence of rapid growth was a shorter lifespan and high mortality under the motto of "live fast – die young." However, the new studies show that the Neanderthal brain indeed grew more quickly than our own, but on average, a larger volume had to be reached in adult age. The duration of brain growth is therefore the same for both kinds of human being.
The large brain brought consequences for the life history (pregnancy, puberty, life expectancy) of the Neanderthals. For children to develop a large brain in a short space of time, they need additional energy and nutrition from the mothers. The only mothers capable of providing this were those who had developed the necessary constitution themselves. They therefore had their first child a little later. If one now compares the entire life history of an average Neanderthal with that of a modern human being, a picture emerges which deviates significantly from existing doctrine: the development of the Neanderthals was just as slow as that of modern people, if not even a little slower.
Despite major physical differences between modern man and the Neanderthal since birth, both types actually obey the same restrictions which are forced upon us by the laws of physiology, development and evolution. "As far as birth, development of the brain and life history are concerned, we are astonishingly similar to each other", says Dr. Ponce de León.
ScienceDaily (29 May 2009) — Researchers from the University of California at Davis (USA) and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig (Germany) present a virtual reconstruction of a female Neanderthal pelvis from Tabun (Israel).
ScienceDaily (16 Aug. 2007) — Chance, not natural selection, best explains why the modern human skull looks so different from that of its Neanderthal relative, according to a new study led by Tim Weaver, assistant professor of anthropology at UC Davis.
ScienceDaily (Mar. 20, 2008) — New research led by UC Davis anthropologist Tim Weaver adds to the evidence that chance, rather than natural selection, best explains why the skulls of modern humans and ancient Neanderthals evolved differently. The findings may alter how anthropologists think about human evolution.
Last year researchers found that Neanderthals and modern humans shared a version of a gene linked to speech called FOXP2.
Read more: http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article1050205.ece#ixzz0s0EFO0JQScienceDaily (21 Apr. 2008)
May 30 10 12:17 PM
May 30 10 1:17 PM
On Monday, August 10th, 2009, at 9:00 PM (EST) a beautiful documentary titled The Mysterious Stone Monuments of Markawasi Peru aired on The Documentary Channel (on DISH). The program was written and directed by Bill Cote. The Executive Producer was Peter E. Schneider. I was part of the expedition team and was featured in the show. For more information on this, see the production's Website at www.markawasi.com/documentary.htm. You can also read more about this mysterious site below.
The Mysterious Stone Monuments of Markawasi Peru2-Disc DVD Set - $24.95 Running Time: 183 minutesDisc one: The hour-long film as seen on The Documentary Channel Disc two: Two hours of additional bonus materials including interviews, footage, maps and historical information. A rare archival video featuring Daniel Ruzo in his 1968 sojourn to the stone forests in France and Romania, includes footage of Markawasi (French Language Film), and an interview with a world-famous psychic revealing a possible extra-terrestrial connection. A second hour in Spanish with behind-the-scenes interviews and a rare Spanish language video. Included is a DVD-Rom sampler of our companion book: Markawasi: Peru's Inexplicable Stone Forest
Special includes BOOK & DVD $39.95. Limited time offer.
Preview MarkawasiAs seen on The Documentary Channel(Download the FREE Quicktime 7 player)
The Mysterious Stone Monumentsof Markawasi Peru High atop a remote plateau in Central Peru, hundreds of bizarre faces were discovered in the living rock. Are they merely erosion, or were they carved by some long-forgotten race? Many are fantastic forms that defy description, but others look uncannily like familiar images that should not be in Peru; a pharaoh from Egypt, a lion from Africa, a Moai from Easter Island? Interviewed are the original discoverer, a 91-year-old explorer, a world-famous paleontologist from Boston University, and the director of excavations at Machu Picchu. What they found is amazing and may call for us to re-think Peru’s ancient past. In 1952, Dr. Daniel Ruzo, a Peruvian scholar, discovered stone statues carved into the living rock of Markawasi. This unusually flat plateau, at 12,500’ has over 200 statues, although the neighboring peaks have none. Ruzo gives us his explanation who carved the statues and why. The makers survived a world-wide flood, he says, and they left these statues to warn us of a similar cataclysm that will soon befall us. We follow a research team and view dozens of incredible statues. With the help of computer graphics, we compare some of the fantastic forms to familiar images from the past. Many statues look eerily similar to Egyptian pharaohs and animal deities. Did the makers of Markawasi have direct contact with Ancient Egypt? World-famous paleontologist Dr. Robert Schoch (NBC’s Emmy Award winning The Mystery of the Sphinx) examines the statues and gives his surprising conclusions. The statues are covered with a patina of lichen that takes thousands of years to accumulate. He comments on the eerie similarity between the face of The Great Sphinx, and a huge face at Markawasi’s highest elevation, called “The African Queen”. Peter Schneider, a British radio personality, has been obsessed with Markawasi for over 20 years. He leads the investigation and shows us some of his favorite statues; The Monument of Humanity: an 85 foot high carving that combines four distinct races of humanity in one bizarre statue. The Pharaoh: 40-foot high face perched at the edge of a 1,000 foot cliff. The Pharaoh has the typical Egyptian Menes headdress, Ureus (snake) on the forehead, and false beard found on virtually every depiction of Egyptian Royalty. Markawasi (also spelled Marcahuasi), located at 12,500' in the Andes Mountains. The statue at the right is the Monument to Humanity. Named by Daniel Ruzo for the four distinct races of humanity which can be found on this 85 foot high monument. Situated at the Northern entrance to the plateau, it greets all visitors The man responsible for what little is known about Marcahuasi, was the late Daniel Ruzo, a Peruvian explorer. This interview was probably his last, filmed in 1991. With his wife Carola translating (both pictured left), we learn of his theories about the creation of the images in Markawasi. A forgotten race created the statues before they were destroyed by a world-wide cataclysm. A warning to us, he says. According to the Ruzo's, the previous humanity lived on earth in Proto-History; before our civilization. They were very advanced, able to travel world wide and left evidence of themselves in many places. (see Romanian "Sphinx", right) This agrees with theories of the Hopi Indians suggesting we are not the first humanity to reach a degree of developmental sophistication, but probably the fourth This new video is a complete expansion of the original short film, "Peru's Mystery in Stone". It is probably the most comprehensive documentation of Markawasi that has ever been made. Our crew returned to the plateau, this time with a world-famous geologist (Dr. Robert M. Schoch The Mystery of the Sphinx) and the former head of archaeology at Machu Picchu (Dr. Marino Sanchez) In a rare moment of discovery, explorer Peter E. Schneider photographed this delicate image. He calls it The Egyptian Princess. It is one of the many clues that suggest contact between Peru and Egypt in the distant past. “Markawasi defies all previously-known timelines and, if not one of the oldest, it is, without doubt, one of the most curious and extraordinary of all places on the planet. It cannot be easily defined by other historical sites.” - Peter E. Schneider Could the builders of Markawasi have traveled to Egypt? The African Queen stone monument bears a close resemblance to the profile of the Great Sphinx of Egypt according to Dr. Schoch. The original music score by Fritz Heede illuminates this fascinating documentary.
Markawasi by Kathy Doore
176-PagePhoto Travel Journal
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