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Oct 20 10 4:49 PM
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Oct 20 10 5:06 PM
October 4, 2010 by Diane Maclean
Rb1 has its origins in the Black Sea are of Anatolia or the Causcasus Mountais. Hammer et al (2008) places its age at 18, 500 years. Distributuin maps of genetic plate Rb1 indicate an Anatolian (Indo-European) paternal connection with Egypt's 18th Dystasty (Akhanaton and King Tut).
2005, SARICH, MIELI: "Race, the realty of Human Differences"
"R" Haplogroup has it irigins in Euro-West Asia.
3/4 of Englishmen were originally Basques, coming to the British Isles between 15,000 - 7, 500 years ago [when the Ice-sheet retreated], according to Stephen Oppenheimer.
15th century manuscript of Bower's Scotichronicon
At first glance there doesn't seem to be much connection between the land of the Pyramids and the land of Irn Bru, but that hasn't put off a number of people, including the ex-owner of Harrods, Mohammed al-Fayed, from believing that Scotland, the place and the people, are in fact descended from an Egyptian princess called Scota.
Such is Mr Fayed's belief, that he has in the past considered building a statue to this Pharaoh's daughter, The error which he enshews, probably stems from the real truth found within Biblical and other historical accounts of the life of the Prophet Jeremiah, and Tamar, the daughter of King Zedekiah. Biblical history ends with their exile to Tahpahnes, Egypt, where some believe Jeremiah died a martyr's death. This novel, however, continues the story as found in the histories and legends of Ireland, where Jeremiah is known as Ollam Fodhla, the learned prophet, and Tamar, as the wife of King Heremon. Through their posterity come the kings and queens of Ireland, Scotland and England, including today's Queen Elizabeth II. This tender romance of young royals caught up in the turmoil of the dark days of the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC entwines the reader in their struggle to survive against savage seas and ancient pagan cultures, as they and the prophet establish a Golden Age in Ireland.
The claim of Egyptian roots for Scotland does, at first, appear to have some heavy-weight champions beyond the man sometime referred to in Private Eye as the "phoney Pharaoh". Walter Bower, who wrote his great work of Scottish history "Scotichronicon" in the late 1440s, records his version of where the people of Scotland derived. Here we see for the first time a direct reference to our descent from a Pharaoh's daughter and her husband, a Greek king. She was Scota, from whence came Scotland, he was Gavthelos, hence Gaelic, and their son was Hiber - which of course leads us to Hibernia.
Bower's history was not the first place which suggested an exalted history for the Scots, Dust down your copy of the Declaration of Arbroath and you'll find added weight to our Eastern ancestry. The document was written in 1320 by 51 Barons and Noblemen of Scotland imploring the Pope to intervene on their behalf against the English during the Wars of Independence. Their letter begins:
"Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could they be subdued by any race, however barbarous."
So far, so good, except that few historians regard this origin-myth as anything more than political bigging-up by a nation who needed to make themselves more grandiose than they were by attempting to trace their roots back to Biblical times. At the very least they might have thought it would impress the Pope.
The idea of Scota, the princess, gained more of a following with the publication of Ralph Ellis's book "Scota, Egyptian Queen of the Scots". Ellis uses as his starting off point an ancient text: "The History of Egypt' written in 300BC by an Egypto-Greek historian called Manetho Ellis. This recounts the story of a royal family's expulsion from Egypt during a time of war and uprising.
Using Manetho's text as a starting point, Ellis then identified Scota as Ankhesenamun, daughter of Akhenaton and Nefertiti. He tracks the family's journey west where, according to Ellis, they had ships enough for 1,000 of their followers and plentiful supplies. They landed first in Spain, where they lived for several generations, their first-born son Hiber, giving rise to the naming of the area as Iberian. Later they moved to Ireland where Ellis offers archaeological proof in the form of necklaces found there which resemble Egyptian torcs and tombs which he suggests could only have been built with Egyptian know-how.
From Ireland to Scotland was a short boat-ride and so, the Pharaonic family eventually crossed the water, bringing with them, yes, you've guessed, Jacob's Pillow, AKA the Stone of Destiny.
It is certainly a great yarn and one that Al-Fayed has taken very much to heart; but it still is in defiance of the truth of Jeremiah
Prophet Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem - by Rembrandt va
bringing the Stone of Destiny with him, when he and adopted daughter (TAMAR, the sole-surviving daughter of Israelite King Zedekiah) fled to the High Tur of the British Isles, upon the fall/ransacking of Jerusalem by Babylon. In Tamar the Tender Twig by Doris Charriere *we read that Centuries later, these people, known as DRUIDS, were greeted by Joseph of Aramathea and his clan, [after the death and Resurrection of Jesus], when they entered upon the Tur of Glastonbury, England, invoking a "treaty". [The stone is still so honored and in use today for the same intentions of ratification of traties and laws.] The staff which Joseph brought to England with him from Jerusalem, grew into the great thorn-bush which still flowers every Christmas season to this day; and remains venerated by English Christianity. The bush grows no where else but in the Holy Land; and is NOT native to the British Isles. Shortly after the crucifixion of Christ Joseph of Aramathea is said to have travelled from the Holy Land to the south west of England. With him he is said to have carried the Holy Grail. On arriving at Glastonbury Tore the staff he had used throughout his journey he thrust into the hill, this grew into the thorn that is their today.Later in the Grail romances many places are said to have been the Isle of Avalon, the final resting-place of Arthur. Glastonbury is one of the most famous places to be thought of as Avalon. This information is related from records kept by the monk Columcille/St.Colombais.
One of the most charismatic episodes of Christian legend and history concerns Joseph of Arimathea and his claimed founding of the first church upon British soil
Britain had been well known to seafarers of the Mediterranean, and the island is mentioned in a Greek document circa 600 BC. It is believed that the Isles of Scilly provided harbour for ships after rounding Spain towards Britain, and a host of flora found otherwise only in the Meditteranean has been found flourishing there. The tin mines of Cornwall, on the south-west coast of England were well known to the ancients, producing vast amounts over thousands of years, the Cornish deposits being so rich that the mines only eventually closed during the twentieth century.
The uncle of Jesus by the maternal line, Joseph of Arimathea was a member of the Sanhedrin, and who was responsible by bond of law for the burial of Jesus after his crucifixion. Afterwards, however, Joseph of Arimathea is held to have departed Palestine under persecution from both unsettled Jews and ever more oppressive Romans, taking the gospel to the furthest lands of the earth as commanded, which in ancient times meant Britain. According to legend, Joseph of Arimathea had a financial stake in the Cornish tin mines, and may even have taken his nephew Jesus there on his merchant travels during the boyhood of Jesus. However, after the crucifixion, Joseph of Arimathea traveled to Britain one last time, to preach and even settle
Apparently, in the company of Lazarus, Mary Magdelene, and the disciple of Jesus named Phillip, the group sailed from Palestine to Marseilles, where Lazarus & Mary stayed, while the others travelled on. At the English Channel, St.Philip sent Joseph, with twelve disciples, to establish Christianity in the most far-flung corner of not only the Roman Empire, but also the perceived world.
English legend has it that Joseph sailed around Land's End and headed for what was to eventually become Glastonbury in Somerset. Here his boat ran ashore and, together with his followers, he climbed a nearby hill to survey the surrounding land. Having brought with him a staff grown from Christ's Holy Crown of Thorns
Joseph met with the local ruler and soon secured himself twelve hides of land at Glastonbury on which to build the first place of Christian worship in Britain, a wattle church named the Vetusta Ecclesia, that Joseph declared should always be attended by twelve followers.
Joseph of Arimathea is supposedly buried upon Glastonbury Tor, the name of the hill upon which the first English parish-church and chapel were built. According to legend, two vials, containing Jesus' sweat and blood, can also be found there, intended originally as relics for the Altar when he was to perform Communion Mass in Glastonbury. Later in centuries, the original church and chapel were expanded to become a monastery, until the Abbey was dissolved by HENRY VIII in 1539, during the English Reformation. Glastonbury is one of the most famous places to be thought of as Avalon.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
a vivid portrait of the far reaches of the Roman Empire and of the life and times of Joseph of Arimathea. In a postscript to this lengthy work, Ripley notes that little is known about Joseph except that he was wealthy and gave his own tomb for the burial of Jesus. Basing her plot on the legend that Joseph was a seaman and tin trader who brought Christianity to England, Ripley weaves the tale of a farmer's son whose passion for the sea carries him to prominence and power while still young. Joseph of Arimathea is the uncle of Jesus of Nazareth (through Jesus' adopted father, another "Joseph"), Joseph of Aramathea becomes a wealthy Jewish "tin-merchant"-seaman. Much of the story centers around the time preceding the birth of Christ when Joseph amasses a fortune from his love of the sea. Ripley relates the story of Joseph of Arimathea, beginning when he runs away from home at the age of 12. His father is a bitter man who wants to keep his son safe on the farm in Arimathea. (His own father had been murdered by the Romans by order of Herod). The adventures of young Joseph as he learns to be a sailor are marvelous as is the background. The Mediterranean world ruled by Rome comes to life and you are absolutely there. Not content with that, we also travel on a secret mission to Great Britain for tin, but the author obviously loves the politics of Rome. In his early years, Joseph brought his young nephew Jesus with him, as a tin-merchant, to the British shores, quite often. He marries his true love, Sarah, when she is 12 years old; their child, born crippled, ultimately leads Joseph back to to his nephew Jesus as an adult "preacher"who heals Joseph's crippled daughter. Soon after, Joseph hears of His crucifixion; and, in a beautifully rendered scene, removes the body from the cross. Ripley relates his lifelong love affair with his first wife (even after he remarries). These are startling, often violent times, when the slightest deviation from religious law requires the sacrificing of live animals and when political deception regularly results in the deaths of hundreds. Ripley details his friendships with King Herod and Augustus Caesar, and Joseph's decision to preach the teachings of Christ throughout the Roman Empire. Ripley relates his establishment of the very first Christian settlement with his daughter in ancient Britain among the Celts and their Druid priests [who were decendants of Jeremiah's clan and his step-daughter Tamar (the sole-surviving daughter of Zedekiah, the wicked Israelite King) ]. The dialogue contains concentrated doses of religious sentimentality when Joseph and his daughter begin their preaching. Joseph's daugher marries the High Druidic Priest. Ripley creates several inspired historical cameos (Herod, Pontius Pilate, Salome) and skillfully incorporates a wealth of visual and architectural, as well as religious, political and social, detail into her engrossing story. Monastacism brought to life
Concerning "TARA" / "TARA's HALLS"
The Name first arrived in Scotland from the annuls of an Irish monk named Columcille/St. Columbais. who was a tribal chieftain who converted to being a monastic novice, and eventually missionary to Scotland, . He was a very human saint, baring his faults as well as lauding his accomplishments. Of course there is conjecture involved in any such legend, but John Desjarlais does a marvelous job of making Columcille come alive -- you can almost hear him speak as if you are part of the crowd around Brude. His preaching is impressive, and the power of almighty God evident in the conversions he inspires. The description of Ireland and Scotland at the time is so detailed you can nearly smell the animal hides and hear the creak of the curragh crossing the open waters toward Iona, and almost see the Loch Ness monster as he confronts it. Not to be taken as gospel, this book pleasantly presents Columba's life and mission in depth, and I must admit I came away impressed as well as educated.
ST. COLUMBAIS/Columcille /COLOMBA was an Abbot of Iona, b. at Garten, County Donegal, Ireland, 7 December, 521; d. 9 June, 597. He belonged to the Clan O'Donnell, and was of royal descent. His father's name was Fedhlimdh and that of his mother Eithne. On his father's side he was great-great-grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish king of the fourth century. His baptismal name was Colum, which signifies a dove, hence the latinized form Columba. It assumes another form in Colum-cille, the suffix meaning "of the Churches". He was baptized at Tulach-Dubhglaise, now Temple-Douglas, by a priest named Cruithnechan, who afterwards became his tutor or foster-father. When sufficiently advanced in letters he entered the monastic school of Moville under St. Finnian who had studied at St. Ninian's "Magnum Monasterium" on the shores of Galloway. Columba at Moville monastic life and received the diaconate. In the same place his sanctity first manifested itself by miracles. By his prayers, tradition says, he converted water into wine for the Holy Sacrifice (Adam., II, i). Having completed his training at Moville, he travelled southwards into Leinster, where he became a pupil of an aged bard named Gemman. On leaving him, Columba entered the monastery of Clonard, governed at that time by Finnian, a remarkable, like his namesake of Moville, for sanctity and learning. Here he imbibed the traditions of the Welsh Church, for Finnian had been trained in the schools of St. David. Here also he became one those twelve Clonard disciples known in subsequent history as the Twelve Apostles of Ireland. About this same time he was promoted to the priesthood by Bishop Etchen of Clonfad. The story that St. Finnian wished Columba to be consecrated bishop, but through a mistake only priest's orders were conferred, is regarded by competent authorities as the invention of a later age (Reeves, Adam., 226).
Another preceptor of Columba was St. Mobhi, whose monastery at Glasnevin was frequented by such famous men as St. Canice, St. Comgall, and St. Ciaran. A pestilence which devastated Ireland in 544 caused the dispersion of Mobhi's disciples, and Columba returned to Ulster, the land of his kindred. The following years were marked by the foundation of several important monasteries, Derry, Durrow, and Kells. Derry and Durrow were always specially dear to Columba. While at Derry it is said that he planned a pilgrimage to Rome and Jerusalem, but did not proceed farther than Tours. Thence he brought a copy of those gospels that had lain on the bosom of St. Martin for the space of 100 years. This relic was deposited in Derry (Skene, Celtic Scotland, II, 483). Columba left Ireland and passed over into Scotland in 563. The motives for this migration have been frequently discussed. Bede simply says: "Venit de Hibernia . . . praedicaturus verbum Dei" (H. E., III, iv); Adarnnan: "pro Christo perigrinari volens enavigavit" (Praef., II). Later writers state that his departure was due to the fact that he had induced the clan Neill to rise and engage in battle against King Diarmait at Cooldrevny in 561. The reasons alleged for this action of Columba are: (1) The king's violation of the right of sanctuary belonging to Columba's person as a monk on the occasion of the murder of Prince Curnan, the saint's kinsman; (2) Diarmait's adverse judgment concerning the copy Columba had secretly made of St. Finnian's psalter. Columba is said to have supported by his prayers the men of the North who were fighting while Finnian did the same for Diarmait's men. The latter were defeated with a loss of three thousand. Columba's conscience smote him, and he had recourse to his confessor, St. Molaise, who imposed this severe penance: to leave Ireland and preach the Gospel so as to gain as many souls to Christ as lives lost at Cooldrevny, and never more to look upon his native land. Some writers hold that these are legends invented by the bards and romancers of a later age, because there is no mention of them by the earliest authorities (O'Hanlon, Lives of the Ir. Saints, VI, 353). Cardinal Moran accepts no other motive than that assigned by Adamnan, "a desire to carry the Gospel to a pagan nation and to win souls to God". (Lives of Irish Saints in Great Britain, 67). Archbishop Healy, on the contrary, considers that the saint did incite to battle, and exclaims: "O felix culpa . . . which produced so much good both for Erin and Alba (Schools and Scholars, 311).
Columba was in his forty-fourth year when he departed from Ireland. He and his twelve companions crossed the sea in a currach of wickerwork covered with hides. They landed at Iona on the eve of Pentecost, 12 May, 563. The island, according to Irish authorities, was granted to the monastic colonists by King Conall of Dalriada, Columba's kinsman. Bede attributes the gift to the Picts (Fowler, p. lxv). It was a convenient situation, being midway between his countrymen along the western coast and the Picts of Caledonia. He and his brethren proceeded at once to erect their humble dwellings, consisting of a church, refectory, and cells, constructed of wattles and rough planks. After spending some years among the Scots of Dalriada, Columba began the great work of his life, the conversion of the Northern Picts. Together with St. Comgall and St. Canice (Kenneth) he visited King Brude in his royal residence near Inverness. Admittance was refused to the missionaries, and the gates were closed and bolted, but before the sign of the cross the bolts flew back, the doors stood open, and the monks entered the castle. Awe-struck by so evident a miracle, the king listened to Columba with reverence; and was baptized. The people soon followed the example set them, and thus was inaugurated a movement that extended itself to the whole of Caledonia. Opposition was not wanting, and it came chiefly from the Druids, who officially represented the paganism of the nation.
The thirty-two remaining years of Columba's life were mainly spent in preaching the Christian Faith to the inhabitants of the glens and wooded straths of Northern Scotland. His steps can be followed not only through the Great Glen, but eastwards also, into Aberdeenshire. The "Book of Deer" (p. 91) tells us how he and Drostan came, as God had shown them to Aberdour in Buchan, and how Bede, a Pict, who was high steward of Buchan, gave them the town in freedom forever. The preaching of the saint was confirmed by many miracles, and he provided for the instruction of his converts by the erection of numerous churches and monasteries. One of his journeys brought him to Glasgow, where he met St. Mungo, the apostle of Strathclyde. He frequently visited Ireland; in 570 he attended the synod of Drumceatt, in company with the Scottish King Aidan, whom shortly before he had inaugurated successor of Conall of Dalriada. When not engaged in missionary journeys, he always resided at Iona. Numerous strangers sought him there, and they received help for soul and body. From Iona he governed those numerous communities in Ireland and Caledonia, which regarded him as their father and founder. This accounts for the unique position occupied by the successors of Columba, who governed the entire province of the Northern Picts although they had received priest's orders only. It was considered unbecoming that any successor in the office of Abbot of Iona should possess a dignity higher than of the founder. The bishops were regarded as being of a superior order, but subject nevertheless to the jurisdiction of the abbot. At Lindisfarne the monks reverted to the ordinary law and were subject to a bishop (Bede, H.E., xxvii).
Columba is said never to have spent an hour without study, prayer, or similar occupations. When at home he was frequently engaged in transcribing. On the eve of his death he was engaged in the work of transcription. It is stated that he wrote 300 books with his own hand, two of which, "The Book of Durrow" and the psalter called "The Cathach", have been preserved to the present time. The psalter enclosed in a shrine, was originally carried into battle by the O'Donnells as a pledge of victory. Several of his compositions in Latin and Irish have come down to us, the best known being the poem "Altus Prosator", published in the "Liber Hymnorum", and also in another form by the late Marquess of Bute. There is not sufficient evidence to prove that the rule attributed to him was really his work.
In the spring of 597 he knew that his end was approaching. On Saturday, 8 June, he ascended the hill overlooking his monastery and blessed for the last time the home so dear to him. That afternoon he was present at Vespers, and later, when the bell summoned the community to the midnight service, he forestalled the others and entered the church without assistance. But he sank before the altar, and in that place breathed forth his soul to God, surrounded by his disciples. This happened a little after midnight between the 8th and 9th of June, 597. He was in the seventy-seventh year of his age. The monks buried him within the monastic enclosure. After the lapse of a century or more his bones were disinterred and placed within a suitable shrine. But as Northmen and Danes more than once invaded the island, the relics of St. Columba were carried for purposes of safety into Ireland and deposited in the church of Downpatrick. Since the twelfth century history is silent regarding them. His books and garments were held in veneration at Iona, they were exposed and carried in procession, and were the means of working miracles (Adam., II, xlv). His feast is kept in Scotland and Ireland on the 9th of June. In the Scottish Province of st Andrews and Edinburgh there is a Mass and Office proper to the festival, which ranks as a double of the second class with an octave. He is patron of two Scottish dioceses Argyle and the Isles and Dunkeld. According to tradition St. Columba was tall and of dignified mien. Adamnan says: "He was angelic in appearance, graceful in speech, holy in work" (Praef., II). His voice was strong, sweet, and sonorous capable at times of being heard at a great distance. He inherited the ardent temperament and strong passions of his race. It has been sometimes said that he was of an angry and vindictive spirit not only because of his supposed part in the battle of Cooldrevny but also because of irritant related by Adamnan (II, xxiii sq.) But the deeds that roused his indignation were wrongs done to others, and the retribution that overtook the perpetrators was rather predicted than actually invoked. Whatever faults were inherent in his nature he overcame and he stands before the world conspicuous for humility and charity not only towards has brethren, but towards strangers also. He was generous and warm-hearted, tender and kind even to dumb creatures. He was ever ready to sympathize with the joys and sorrows of others. His fasts and vigils were carried to a great extent. The stone pillow on which he slept is said to be still preserved in Iona. His chastity of body and purity of mind are extolled by all his biographers. Notwithstanding his wonderful austerities, Adamnan assures us he was beloved by all, "for a holy joyousness that ever beamed from his countenance revealed the gladness with which the Holy Spirit filled his soul". (Praef., II.)
He was not only a great missionary saint who won a whole kingdom to Christ, but he was a statesman, a scholar, a poet, and the founder of numerous churches and monasteries. His name is dear to Scotsmen and Irishmen alike. And because of his great and noble work even non-Catholics hold his memory in veneration. For the purposes of controversy it has been maintained some that St. Columba ignored papal supremacy, because he entered upon his mission without the pope's authorization. Adamnan is silent on the subject; but his work is neither exhaustive as to Columba's life, nor does it pretend to catalogue the implicit and explicit belief of his patron. Indeed, in those days a mandate from the pope was not deemed essential for the work which St. Columba undertook. This may be gathered from the words of St. Gregory the Great, relative to the neglect of the British clergy towards the pagan Saxons (Haddan and Stubbs, III, 10). Columba was a son of the Irish Church, which taught from the days of St. Patrick that matters of greater moment should be referred to the Holy See for settlement. St. Columbanus, Columba's fellow-countryman and fellow-churchman, asked for papal judgment (judicium) on the Easter question; so did the bishops and abbots of Ireland. There is not the slightest evidence to prove that St. Columba differed on this point from his fellow-countrymen. Moreover, the Stowe Missal, which, according to the best authority, represents the Mass of the Celtic Church during the early part of the seventh century, contains in its Canon prayers for the pope more emphatic than even those of the Roman Liturgy. To the further objection as to the supposed absence of the cultus of Our Lady, it may be pointed out that the same Stowe Missal contains before its Canon the invocation "Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis", which epitomizes all Catholic devotion to the Blessed Virgin. As to the Easter difficulty Bede thus sums up the reasons for the discrepancy: "He [Columba] left successors distinguished for great charity, Divine love, and strict attention to the rules of discipline following indeed uncertain cycles in the computation of the great festival of Easter, because, far away as they were out of the world, no one had supplied them with the synodal decrees relating to the Paschal observance" (H.E., III, iv). As far as can be ascertained no proper symbolical representation of St. Columba exists. The few attempts that have been made are for the most part mistaken. A suitable pictorial representation would exhibit him, clothed in the habit and cowl usually worn by the Basilian or Benedictine monks, with Celtic tonsure and crosier. His identity could be best determined by showing him standing near the shell-strewn shore, with currach hard by, and the Celtic cross and ruins of Iona in the background.
Nov 2 10 6:31 AM
circa 12,000 BC Basques were in the European-Mediterannean (ie. Corsica and the Pyranées coast of modern France). Upon the end of the iceage, they headed north and north-east, some to Basque country, others to the Black Sea region (before its innudation of the Bosphorus) and south-east to the area known today as Gobekli Tepe. Eventually those of the Basque country settled into British Isles. Many did not remain in those Isles; but also fled south-eastward, joining their fore-brethern into the Anatolian hills as warlords (to eventually become the mighty "Hittites"). From these Hittites sprang the Biblical Abraham, Lot and his clan. Centuries later this offshoot clan started a dynasty in Eqypt beginning with Joseph (Yuha) the Visier, son of Isreal. They lived at Avaris with the Trojans and in Goshen. They became known as the Hyskos Kings. Under Ahkanaten /Moses, most of these peoples exited into the Sinai Desert. Some migrated back to Crete. Eventually the majority crossed over into the Lands of Canaan, becoming, in time, the conquering Jewish dynasty of Sheherd Kings under David.
Later, they almost re-conquered pharohnic Egypt in the period under Ramses 11, in the Battle of Kadesh.___________________________________________________________________________________
In Egyptian, the name Michael is makel, meaning "blue."
Joseph (recorded as being the "dream analyst" of Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV), who later became the Chief Minister-Overseer /Vizier Yuya (during the Hyksos line of pharaohs). Akhenaten's maternal grandfather Yuya was the same person as the Biblical Joseph. Yuya had strong connections to the city of Akhmin in Upper Egypt, which is indicated in his title "Overseer of the Cattle of Min at Akhmin".
Egyptian tomb inscriptions usually relate, in one way or another, to the godhead under which the occupant was placed in life, using such deiform names as Ra, Amen and Ptah. In this case, the unusual tomb inscriptions of the grand vizier do not relate to any known god of Egypt; they reveal instead such names as Ya-ya and Yu-ya - phonetically, Iouiya, which is akin to Yaouai, a variant of
— Laurence Gardner; Genesis of the Grail Kings
The one things that is now becoming clear is that the Israelites in Egypt were not slaves, but were royalty (and treated like royalty), until the extreme excesses of Akhenaten (Moses)... and to a less extent, Smenkhkare (Aaron), and Aye (Kheperkheprure) [the latter the son of Tuya and Yuya]... as the Israelites came into all together too much power as non-Egyptians as the native Egyptians could bear. In other words, things went bad for the Israelites beginning primarily with Moses... and then the Exodus came about when Moses went back to pull the extended family out of Egypt.
In addition, according to Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings (pages 183-184), the name, Yuya, was phonetically akin to variants of Yahweh. "the vizier had become personally known as Yuya, and... and his grandson, Pharaoh Akhenaten, later developed the 'One God' concept in Egypt." Yuya was in fact "the principal minister" for Tuthmosis IV and his son, Amenhotep III. "His tomb was discovered in 1905, along with that of his wife, Tuya (the Asenath), and the mummies of Yuya and Tuya are among the very best preserved in the Cairo Museum." "Clearly, this couple were of tremendous importance in their day." It is also clear that "Yuya was not only the viceroy and primary state official, but was also the father of a pharaoh, just as related in Genesis (45:8)." [The reference is to Joseph, but as a Joseph, Yuya would be able to claim such an honor... in this case as a grandfather to a pharaoh.]
"Yuya's family was very influential, holding inherited land in the Egyptian delta, and he was a powerful military leader. Anen, the elder son of Yuya and Tuya, also rose to high office under Amenhotep III as Chancellor of Lower Egypt, High Priest of Heliopolis and Divine Father of the nation. But it was his youngest son, Aye, who held the special distinction 'Father of the God' and became pharaoh in 1352 BC -- as did other descendants of Yusuf-Yuya, including the now famous Tutankhamen."
"We are, therefore, into the realm of the original covenant of kingship made with Isaac. His son Esau may have sold his birthright to his younger twin brother Jacob-Israel (whose descendants became kings of Judah), but now we discover that, through Tuya and Yuya, descendants of Esau did indeed become pharaohs of Egypt. These particular pharaohs have become known as the 'Amarna Kings': they were Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamen and Aye, who ruled consecutively c. 1367 - 1348 BC." [And as it turned out, this same chain of pharaohs ruled over the final years of the 18th Dynasty. One might suspect they were the reason for its end.]
"If the covenant were to be taken literally, it would appear that the selling of the birthright by Esau to Jacob had no effect whatever; it was not until after the Amarna period that the lines of Esau and Jacob were united through marriage, subsequently descending to the Davidic kings of Judah."
Generation No. 49
1. Amenhotep III (Nubmaatre)
1) Tiye (Tiya), a great queen known as a proponent of monotheism. 2) ilukhepa, first of several diplomatic brides and daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni3) Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni
children (by Tiye)
Thutmose, who predeceased his fatherAmenhotep IV, aka Akhenaten, aka MosesSmenkhkare, who briefly succeeded Akhenaten, and who was depicted as a womanSitamun, elevated to the office of "great royal wife" during Amenhotep’s last decade *HenuttanebIset (Isis), also elevated to the office of "great royal wife" *Nebetah
*The lineage of the royal line of Egypt was traced through its women and the religion of Ancient Egypt was interwoven inexorably with the male’s right to rule. It must be stressed that Egypt's theological paradigm, therefore, encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several different generations as wives to strengthen the chances of his offspring succeeding him. The goddess Hathor herself was related as first the mother [aka Tiamat?] and later wife and daughter of Ra [aka Marduk, son of Enki?] when he rose to prominence in the pantheon of the Ancient Egyptian religion. Hence, Amenhotep III's marriage to his daughter, Sitamun, was somewhat typical, even if Sitamun may have actually been the youngest daughter of Amenhotep III's father Thutmose IV -- thus making her the half-sister of Amenhotep III and not his daughter.
[This matriarchal influence on royal legitimacy is very, very important! In other words, Joseph is not particularly needed relative to Mary... In this case, Sitamun also provided the matriarchal lineage to Nefertiti (the future wife of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), who was destined for fame and winner of beauty pageants thousands of years later. The immediate offspring of Nefertiti included Merytaten (who married Smenkhkare -- aka Aaron-- and Princess Scota who hooked up with Niul of Scythia).
Tiye was descended from Yuya and Tiuyu, whose other children included a future pharaoh: Kheperkheprure Ay, as well as Anen. Importantly, Tiye may have bridged the gap between the Cain and Seth lines, such that her child was a pivotal figure in the ultimate royal lines. If not, she could always count on her grand daughter, Kiya-tasherit, to definitively bridge the gap... the bridge over troubled waters, in the latter case.
Meanwhile, Tiye's monotheism -- which she in turn passed onto her son, Akhenaten -- was probably derived from those Hebrews who had been... well, let’s just say... "residing" in Egypt. The result was a major conflict with tradition and priests. Tiye, as a mother, might not have set the best possible example for her impressionable son to follow.]
WhenThutmose IV died, his son Amenhotep III married his sister . Once he had secured his throne, he also married Tiye, the daughter of Chief Minister Yuya [believed to be the biblical patriarch Joseph [Hebrew Bible], son of Jacob.
Because the Israelites were gaining too much power in Egypt and because Yuya, a foreigner, had been governor for so long, it was decided that no children of Tiye would be allowed inherit the throne of Egypt, but instead should be killed at birth. Tiye's family lived in the "Land of Goshen" , so she went to have her baby at her summer palace. Her son was put in a reed basket to float downstream to the house of Yuya's half-brother, Levi ....
So did Akhenaten (Moses) have a brother who was himself a pharaoh...Indeed he did...his name was Smankhkare**. He was the grandson of Yusuf-Yuya the Vizier, and the son of Aye (the brother of Akhenaten's birth-mother, Tiye). Correctly stated, this pharaoh's name was Smenkh-ka-ra ('Vigourous is the Soul of Ra'). Alternatively, since Ra was the state sun god of the Heliopolis House of Light, called On, Pharaoh Smenkh-ka-ra was also Smenkh-ka-ra-on, from the phonetic ending of which derives 'Aaron'.
(page 189): Pharaoh Amenhotep III then suffered a period of ill health and, because there was no direct male heir to the royal house [Amenhotep III and his wife, Sitamun, for example, had failed to produce a male heir], young Amenhotep married his half-sister Nefertiti in order to rule as co-regent during this difficult time. When their father died, he succeeded as Amenhotep IV by virtue of his marriage to Nefertiti. Were it not for this marriage, the eighteenth dynasty would have expired at their father's death.
Because of his part-Israelite upbringing, Amenhotep IV (sometimes called Amenophis IV) could not accept the Egyptian deities and their myriad idols, so he developed the notion of Aten, an omnipotent god with no image, who was represented by a solar disc with downward rays. Aten was not the sun god, however, for the Egyptian sun god was Ra. The name 'Aten' was the equivalent of the Hebrew Adon - a title borrowed from the Phoenician and meaning 'Lord' - with the familiar 'Adonai' meaning 'my Lord'. At the same time, Amenhotep ('Amen is Pleased') changed his name to Akhenaten ('Glorious Spirit of the Aten'/ "Effective spirit of Aten"); and closed all the temples of the Egyptian gods, making himself very unpopular, particularly with the priests of Ra and with those of the former national deity, Amen.— Laurence Gardner: Genesis of the Grail Kings
Akhenaten even moved the capital away from the city of Thebes in an effort to break the influence of that powerful temple and assert his own preferred choice of deities, the local deity of Akhenaten ('Horizon of Aten'), at the site known today as Amarna, while suppressing the worship of the Amun deity.
[In many respects there has always been a binding agreement between rulers and the respective religious hierarchies for millennia. Rulers are allowed to use religion to control the masses (commoners), but must in turn allow the priests their own form of power (mostly to con, embezzle, or otherwise extract money from the religiously generous). Rulers who threaten the priests’ "rice bowls" are inherently dispensable.]
According to Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings (pages 79, 87), "Tablets containing Adapa's story were originally discovered, along with the Enuma elish... in the Egyptian archives of Pharaoh Amenhotep III..." There is also detail found that "a heavenly shem was provided by Enki for the priest-king Atabba when he ascended to meet with the great Anu." These are just more points of evidence that the royal blood line... from Adam to this 18th Dynasty pharaoh... was still very important.
2. Tiya (Tiye
According to Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings (page 186), when Tuthmosis IV died, his son Amenhotep III "married his infant sister Sitamun (as was the pharonic tradition) so that he could inherit the throne." "Shortly afterwards, in order to have an adult wife as well, Amenhotep also married Tiye, the daughter of [his chief minister] Yusuf-Yuya. It was decreed, however, that no son born to Tiye could inherit the throne and, because of the length of her father's governorship, there was a general fear that his Israelite relatives were gaining too much power in Egypt." [So much for the "bondage and hard labor" bit; with Egyptians becoming a bit more nervous over the power and influence of the Israelites.]
Tiye had a son, Tuthmosis, and in fact he did not survive (with a whip bearing his name being found later in the tomb of Tutankhamen). Based upon the evidence at hand (as well as entombed), Tiye concluded that the ban on her sons was for real, and when she became pregnant again, she took precautions. During her pregnancy, she moved to Goshen, where she could reside in her "confinement" among the somewhat more friendly Israelites. There Tiye had a her brother's wife, Tey, a daughter of the house of Levi, nurse her son. As far as an outsider could tell, Tey was nursing her own child, and poor Tiye had once again failed to generate a possible heir to the Egyptian throne. [Considering Tiye's radical religion of monotheism, she was wise to avoid antagonizing the Religious Right of Egypt.] "Tiye's son Amenhotep (born c. 1394 BC) was later educated at Heliopolis by the Egyptian priests of Ra... and in his teenage years he went to live at Thebes. By that time, his mother had become more influential than the senior queen, Sitamun, who had never borne a son and heir to the pharaoh, only a daughter who was called Nefertiti." [In fact, Tey may have been Nefertiti's mother as well!]
"Pharaoh Amenhotep III then suffered a period of ill-health and, because there was no direct male heir to the royal house, young Amenhotep married his half-sister Nefertiti in order to rule as co-regent during this difficult time. When their father died, he succeeded as Amenhotep IV by virtue of his marriage to Nefertiti. Were it not for this marriage, the eighteenth dynasty would have expired at their father's death."
Not surprisingly, Tiye probably had a great deal of influence over Amenhotep IV... soon to be renamed Akhenaten (Egyptian)... and known to the Israelites as Moses. Sometimes it pays to have an alias. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SOURCES FOR Generation No. 50 :
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) MOSES
1) Nefertiti (daughter of Amenhotep III and Sitamun OR Kheperkheprure Aye and Tey)2) Kiya (Mery-khiba) (Mery-amom) MIRIAM (daughter of Amenhotep III)3) Zipporah -- who later marries Jethro, Lord High Priest of Midian(Jethro is descended from Reuel, son of Esau and Bashemath)
Both Merytaten and Ankhesenpaaten apparently had children – Merytaten-ta-sherit and Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit, respectively. Merytaten and Smenkhkare (aka Aaron, Zadok and Pharaoh) created a line of descent that included Princess Scota, who married Niul of Scythia. [The tendency of intra-royal marriages among diverse cultures is really quite impressive. It’s perhaps one of the primary means by which constant warfare among nations is reduced, if not in some cases eliminated.] Note also that Smenkhkare’s father Kheperkheprure (Aye) was brother to Tiye, and that both were of the royal Israeli line. Accordingly, if anyone wonders why the Egyptians might have been ever so suspicious of the local Hebrews and their intentions... perhaps it was their successful penetration into the royal Egyptian line of Pharaohs.
Akhenaten, making himself very unpopular, particularly with the priests of Ra and with those of the former national deity, Amun, closed all the temples of the Egyptian gods and built new temples to Aten. He also ran a household that was distinctly domestic - quite different from the kingly norm in ancient Egypt. One many fronts he became unpopular - particularly with the priests of the former national deity Amun (or Amen) and of the sun god Ra (or Re). Plots against his life proliferated. Loud were the threats of armed insurrection if he did not allow the traditional gods to be worshipped alongside the faceless Aten. but also there were many plots against his life and threats of armed insurrection if he did not allow the traditional gods to be worshipped alongside the faceless Aten. Akhenaten refused and was eventually forced to abdicate in short-term favour of his cousin Smenkhkare, who was succeeded by Tutankhaten, Akhenaten's son by his deputy queen, Kiya...Tutankhaten was obliged to change his name to Tutankhamun (thereby denoting a renewed allegiance to Amun/Amen, rather than to Aten)...Akhenaten, meanwhile, was banished from Egypt in about 1361 BC, althought to his supporters he remained very much the rightful monarch...he was still regarded by them as the royal Mose or Mosis. Meanwhile, Smenkhkare, Akhenaten's successor and/or co-ruler for the last years of his reign, is sometimes described as being a half-brother or a son to Akhenaten. However, we will assume that Smenkhkare was the son of Tey (Jochelbed) [the Senior Queen of Kheperkheprure (Aye)] and the feeding mother to Akhenaten (Moses) and Nefertiti. [One might not think that a "feeding mother’ would be all that important... but similar to Nin-khursag’s carrying the fetus from a Eljo woman, the need for royal blood nourishing upcoming royalty is absolutely paramount. In this case, however, note that Tey (Jochebed) is very likely an Israelite, so that the Israeli influence in the Egyptian pharaoh line is still very much in evidence.]
BTW, twelve years after the death of Amenhotep III, Tiye is still mentioned in inscriptions as Queen and beloved of the King. It has been suggested that Akhenaten and his mother acted as consorts to each other until her death. This would have been considered incest, even in ancient times. Supporters of this theory (notably
[Considering the possibility of Tiye and Akhenaten being active consorts, and Tiye’s influence over Akhenaten's sufficient attempt to completely subvert Egyptian religion into a strange, foreign (Hebrew) manner...This in fact might have been Nefertiti’s possible power base.]
the story of Akhenaten's 12-year monotheistic regime with that of Moses as narrated in the Bible:
with the Troy theses OF THE HEBREW/ Semitic PEOPLES LIVING IN Egypt at the period of the Great Exodus...also the latest archaeologicical digs in the areas.
On the plus side he makes clear how complex the eruption sequence of Santorini (Thera) was, and offers a plausible (but as yet unverified) date of 1190-1210BC for the final cataclysmic eruption. There is archaeological evidence in support of this. Sadly he does not refer to research work on the site of Troy and the Scamander plain that shows that it is was a very large and complex site and probably the source of the Atlantis myth but this is a minor criticism. A further minor criticism is his brief treatment of the origins of the Etruscans and Romans, but then these could have been books in themselves. He does deal with the Hyksoss very well and casts much new light on this hitherto difficult group. In all the new chronology has taken us to more accurate and reliable dates for events and people in the "Bronze age" and shows just how important this period is in the development of modern western culture. Rohl has done general readers a great service through these books and helped to dispel modern academic myths about the past.
Troy is placed in it's true historic context and Homer is put back in his correct historic period. As well as allowing the true founder of the Roman civilisation to be correctly identified as the historically real figure of Aeneas. Along the way he also removes the myth status from the Greek heroes such as Heracles, Perseus, Icarus and Daedalus and places them in their true historic location. The arguments given and evidence presented wipe a way, with a huge and convincing stroke, the phantom Greek Dark Age, that most archaeologists have an impossible task trying to explain. It can be heavy going at times due to the detail that Mr Rohl goes into but it is fascinating to see the truth emerge from the mists of time at such a page turning pace (I first read it over 3 days). Now I can revisit the evidence and examine in more detail the excellent reference material provided. Although his New Chronology may not be 100 percent correct (it is tweak-able) once again Mr Rohl has without doubt proven that the Outdated Chronology, generally accepted by academia, is, in my opinion, 100 percent incorrect. Simcha Jacobovici. Jacobovici has extensively researched evidence that the Biblical account of the Exodus was real, and concludes that it actually took place in 1500 BCE (during the reign of pharaoh Ahmos I), historically known as the Hyksos Expulsion. The Hyksos people were a Semitic race about whom little is known. But their departure from Egypt, following a long enslavement, along with early writings and other physical evidence, make a strong case that they are the Hebrews of lore. Jacobovici suggests the Exodus is also connected to the catastrophic eruption of the Santorini volcano, which ended the Minoan civilization and triggered a limnic eruption (a surge of carbon dioxide) in the Nile river delta. The latter would have killed the river's fish but likely chased out all the frogs, a phenomenon that could have been considered one of the famous plagues in the Exodus story. (Jacobovici makes a case for the other so-called plagues also being a consequence of the eruption.) Whatever one's opinion of The Exodus Decoded as a historical documentary, it is engrossing viewing, shot in some truly exotic locations, often under the highly suspicious eye of Egyptian authorities. Several moments--such as the revelation of a Hyksos slave's rock carving, pleading with God to be rescued--are astonishing. --Tom Keogh
The scholar and Genealogist of the Holy Bloodline of Jesus,
Chapter I: The Bloodline Begins:
It is now generally acknowledged that the opening chapters of the Old Testament do not accurately represent the early history of the world, as they appear to suggest. More precisely, the tell the story of a family - a family that in time became a race comprising various tribes; a race that in turn became the Hebrew nation. If Adam can ever be said to have been the first of a type (notwithstanding the whole of human evolution behind him), then he was certainly the progenitor of the Hebrews and the tribes of Israel.
Two of the most intriguing characters of the Old Testament are Joseph and Moses. Each played an important role in the formation of the Hebrew Nation, and both have historical identities that can be examined quite independently of the Bible. Genesis 41:39-43 tells how Joseph was made Governor of Egypt.
And Pharoah said unto Joseph...Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled; only in that throne will I be greater than thou...and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt.
Referring to Moses, Exodus 11:3 informs us similarly that:
Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharoah's servants, and in the sight of the people.
Yet for all of this status and prominence neither Joseph nor Moses appear in any Egyptian record under either of those names.
"In the last verses of Genesis it is told how Joseph adjured his relatives to take his bones back to Canaan whenever God should restore them to their original home, and in Joshua 24:32 it is told how his body was indeed brought to Palestine and buried in Shechem. For centuries there was a tomb at Shechem reverenced as the Tomb of Joseph (see photo to left). A few years ago the tomb was opened. It was found to contain a body mummified according to the Egyptian custom, and in the tomb, among other things, was a sword of the kind worn by Egyptian officials."
-- Prophets, Idols and Diggers book by John Elder
The annals of Rameses II (1304-1237 BC) specify that Semitic people were settled in the land of Goshen. It is further explained that they went there from Canaan for want of food. But why should Rameses' scribes mention this settlement at Goshen? According to standard Bible chronology the Hebrews went to Egypt some three centuries before the time of Rameses, and made their Exodus in about 1491 BC, long before he came to the throne. So, by virtue of this first-hand scribal record, the standard Bible chronology as generally promotes is seen to be incorrect.
It is traditionally presumed that Joseph was sold into slavery in Egypt in the 1720's BC, and was made Governor by the Pharoah a decade or so later. Afterwards, his father Jacob (Israel) and 70 family members followed him into Goshen to escape the famine in Canaan. Notwithstanding this, Genesis 47:11, Exodus 1:11 and Number 33:3 all refer to 'the land of Rameses' (in Egyptian, 'the house of Rameses'). This was a complex of grain storehouses built by the Israelites for Rameses II in Goshen some 300 after they were supposed to be there!
It transpires, therefore, that the alternative 'Jewish Reckoning' is more accurate that the 'Standard Chronology'; Joseph went to Egypt not in the early 18th Century BC but in the early 15th Century BC. There he was appointed Chief MInister to Tuthmosis IV (ruled c. 1413-1405 BC). To the Egyptians, however, Joseph the Vizir was known as Yuya, and his story is particularly revealing not just in relation to the Biblical account of Joseph but also in respect of Moses. The Cairo-born historian and linguist Ahmed Osman has made an in-depth study of these personalities in their contemporary Egyptian environment, and his findings are of great significance.
When Pharoah Tuthmosis died, his son married his sibling sister Sitamun (as was the Pharonic tradition) so that he could inherit the throne as Pharoah Amenhotep III. Shortly afterwards he also married Tiye, daughter of the Chief Minister (Joseph/Yuya). It was decreed, however, that no son born to Tiye could inherit the throne. Because of the overall length of her father Joseph's governorship there was a general fear that the Israelites were gaining too much power in Egypt. So when Tiye became pregnant, the edict was given that her child should be killed at birth if a son. Tiye's Jewish relatives lived at Goshen, and she herself owned a summer palace a little upstream at Sarw, where she went to have her baby. She did indeed bear a son but the royal midwives conspired with Tiye to float the child downstream in a reed basket to the house of her father's half-brother Levi.
The boy, Aminadab (born around 1394 BC), was duly educated in the eastern delta country by the Egyptian priests of Ra. In his teenage years he went to live at Thebes. By that time, his mother had acquired more influence than the senior queen, Sitamun, who had never borne a son and heir to the Pharoah, only a daughter who was called Nefertiti. In Thebes, Aminadab accepted the notion of Aten, an omnipresent God who had no image. Aten was thus an equivalent of the Hebrew "Adonai" (a title borrowed from the Phoenician and meaning 'Lord') in line with Israelite teachings. At that time Aminadab (Hebrew equivalent of Amenhotep - 'Amun is pleased') changed his name to Akhenaten (servant of Aten).
Pharoah Amenhotep then suffered a period of ill health. Because there was no direct male heir to the royal house, Akhenaten married his half-sister Nefertiti in order to rule as co-regent during this difficult time. When in due course Amenhotep III died, Akhenaten was able to succeed as Pharoah - officially called Amenhotep IV. Akhenaten and Nefertiti had six daughters and a son, Tutankhaten. Akhenaten was eventually forced to abdicate in short-term favour of his cousin Smenkhkare, who was succeeded by Akhenaten's son Tutankhaten. On taking the throne at the age of about 11, Tutankhaten was obliged to change his name to Tutankhamun. He, in turn, was only to live and rule for a further nine or ten years, meeting his death while still comparatively young.
As Moses grew to adulthood in Egypt, he assumed the title of Tutmoses II as heir to the throne of Egypt, [but when he left Egypt after committing murder, he was replaced, and another man assumed that title. Moses as an adult, as Thutmoses II, prince of Egypt, before he left Egypt for Midian! (Images of statues in various museums support this relationship)]
Moses/Akhenaten, meanwhile, was banished from Egypt. He fled with some retainers to the remote safety of Sanai, taking with him his royal sceptre topped with a brass serpent. To his supporters he remained very much the rightful monarch, the heir to the throne from which he had been ousted, and he was still regarded by them as the Mose, Meses or Mosis (heir/born of) - as in Tuthmosis (born of Tuth) and Rameses (fashioned of Ra).
Evidence from Egypt indicates that Moses (Akhenaten led his people from Pi-Rameses (near modern Kantra) southward, through Sanai, towards Lake Timash. This was extremely marshy territory and, although manageable on foot with some difficulty, any pursuing horses and chariots would have foundered disastrously.
Among the retainers who fled with Moses were the sons and families of Jacob (Israel). Then at the instigation of their leader, they constructed the tabernacle at the foot of Mount Sanai. Once Moses had died, they began their invasion of the country left by their forefathers so long before. But Canaan (Palestine) had changed considerably in the meantime, having been infiltrated by waves of Philistines and Phoenicians. The records tell of great sea battles, and of massive armies marching to war. At length, the Hebrews (under their new leader, Joshua) were successful and, once across the Jordan, they took Jericho from the Canaanites, gaining a real foothold in their traditional Promised Land.
Following Joshua's death, the ensuing period of rule by appointed 'judges' was a catalogue of Jewish disaster until the disparate Hebrew tribes united under their first king, Saul, in about 1055 BC. with the conquest of Palestine (Canaan) as complete as possible, David of Bethlehem - a descendant of Abraham - married Saul's daughter to become King of Judah (corresponding to half the Palestinian territory). By 1048 BC, he had also acquired Israel (the balance of the territory) becoming overall King of the Jews. The Bloodline of the Holy Grail had begun.
MOSES / Akhenaten
ATEN= ADENOI or, Aton (Adonai)
Manetho states that Moses received his priestly education and learned all the wisdom of the Egyptians in the city of Heliopolis, in the Delta, the Biblical city of On...the House of the Sun
Ultimately, Moses / Akhenaten / Amenhotep IV was exiled and fled to the land of Midian, east of the Sinai penisula. Nefertiti apparently died shortly thereafter. Moses, meanwhile, married Zipporah, the daughter of Lord Jethro, and she bore him two sons. Moses then did the Burning Bush thing and arrangements were made to return to Egypt... and retrieve the Israelites, who had recently (NOT 400 years) been placed in bondage by the new authorities. However, by the time Moses was ready to head home, a whole new regime had begun in Egypt: the 19th dynasty, whose founding pharaoh was Ramses I. And of course, in order to identify himself to the new rulers, Moses was advised to use magic tricks (aka miracles by virtue of divine powers conferred upon him by "I am that I am.").
Okay you know most of the rest... except maybe for the point that according to Laurence Gardner (Genesis of the Grail Kings), "When the Israelites made their exodus from Egypt, their spiritual leader was not Moses, but Miriam -- a queen and high priestess of the pharonic succession."
the Egyptians expelled the Hyksos by about 1530BC? (Here, with the Egyptians under the command of Pharaoh Amosis (Ahmose), who had begun his reign about 1552BC, this Ahmose being a nephew of Kamose). To expel the Hyksos, it was necessary to ruin Avaris (such ruination ought to produce an archaeologically verifiable date?).
By the time they ousted the Hyksos, the Egyptians had adopted and probably improved the Hyksos' military technology, the earlier superiority of which was one reason the Hyksos had overrun Egypt. With this success, Ahmose (Amosis) then went for Palestine. Ahmose also took areas from the Nubians (Kushites) and shored up his southern borders near the Second Cataract of the Nile. Ahmose' Queen was Ahmose-Nefertiti.
Whether the above information about the mysterious Hyksos is accurate or inaccurate, it gives us some dates, reliable or not. If we move down the ladder of a timeframe, we might, depending on whom we read, find that the Hyksos were pacified by Egypt in Canaan between 1550BC and 1450BC. If any suggestion is made in this part of the timeframe, for an Exodus date, it may have been that prior to escaping, Moses took advantage of widespread instability? It would then follow that the Pharaohs of the Oppression and the Exodus will be found within this timeframe, which gives us the earlier Exodus date, around 1450BC.
But does it have to do with anything at all, that one date provided for the explosion of the island of Thera [a date given by Friedrich] is 1500BC-1470BC? (Here, see also, Phillips, Act of God.) And that the explosion of Thera (also known as, Kalliste, also, Santorini) devastated civilisation on Crete? So, one might wonder if the events referred to above happened in coincidental timeframes? (The Greeks are thought by some writers to have come to Crete about 1450BC).
The Great Flood
1450BC: Thera blows up. [Mellersh, Friedrich]. Thera's tidal wave hit Crete about 1500BC-1470BC. (?)
But the second collapse of the Minoan palaces was in 1450BC, and only Knossos on Crete survived that catastrophe. [Friedrich]. Mainland Greeks came to Knossos about 1450BC [Friedrich].
Ian Wilson thinks Tuthmosis III was the Pharaoh resident on the delta at the times Moses departed. His throne had been usurped by Hatshepsut due to the youth of Tuthmosis III. [Ian Wilson, Exodus]. Wilson says Hatshepsut's reign began well but ended "in mysterious disgrace for her and her first minister Senenmut". About 1494BC-1482, Tuthmosis I reigns in Egypt. Tuthmosis II reigned from 1494BC. [Tapsell, Aldred]. Queen Hatshepsut (Ma'kare Hashepsowe), 1490BC-1468BC. 1488BC, Hatshepsut establishes herself as a Pharaoh (Mellersh]. 1488BC-1469BC, Hatshepsut decides on internal progress, not foreign adventures; her favourite is Senenmut. [Mellersh].
The supposition arises that once Thera had erupted, and after fire from earthquakes or volcanoes, there arose a tsunami or tidal wave which may have had something to do with the drowning of an Egyptian army bogged in the Reed Sea?
But did any explosion of Thera account for destruction on Crete? This is unsure. Did Theran activity help arouse the plagues of Egypt? And all this 25 years either side of 1450BC? The Theran explosion was perhaps the biggest natural upheaval in the known history of the day. Wilson cites an inscription from Hatshepsut's time, about an allowing of some immigrants (abomination of the gods) to depart, whence the earth swallowed their footsteps. Goedicke has translated a reference to a directive of Nun, the primeval water, father of fathers. Was the collapse of Thera the fall of Atlantis? Was the tsunami was reason for the Deucalion or Ogyges floods on Greece?(The Mediterranean is tideless, and the early Church fathers believed that the Greek floods occurred at the time of Moses' Exodus).
Wilson continues, Hatshepsut's reign began well but ended "in mysterious disgrace for her and her first minister Senenmut". Wilson continues, possibly, Senenmut was blamed for chaos on the delta, and halfway through his own reign, Tuthmosis III ordered an obliteration of Hatshepsut's memory.
date Moses from about 1526BC to 1406BC, with an Exodus date about 1446BC, or, in the time of Tuthmosis III (plus Hatshepsut?). This might make Moses aged about age 80 when confronting Pharaoh in 1446BC? This might make Moses aged five in 1521BC? Packer has Moses born at the time when the Egyptians drove out the Hyksos, 1486BC. A suggested date for Moses fleeing into the wilderness after killing an Egyptian slave driver is about 1446BC
Now, by some available dates, the Hyksos afflicted the Egyptians around 1700BC-1500BC. Some American Protestant Bible scholars prefer a birthdate for Moses around 1526BC. If we are to believe biblical genealogies, one can range forward or backward in time to find approximate dates for Abraham (socio-political upheavals around Ur about 2100BC?). Abraham and Terah probably left Ur after an invasion of Mesopotamia from the West by the Amorites. Were these possibly Amorites from Canaan, Amorites who invaded about 2000BC? [Bacon, Atlas]. The Hebrews settled in Egypt about 1800BC, possibly.Perhaps, the problem of the dating of Moses begins with Joseph? If we assume that Joseph went into Egypt in about 1850BC-1800BC (by Bimson's redating as noted in Wilson] or, 1650BC and the Jews were enslaved for 430 years after that, then their enslavement ceased about 1420BC, 1395BC or 1220BC?
Dr John Bimson has dated Joseph's time in Egypt about the time of Sesostris III (1878BC-1841BC), near a time when there was an erratic flooding of the Nile. Joseph was possibly an administrator at Avaris/Pi-Ramesses, and so then the Israelites would have been on the Nile delta for 430 years. This might give an Exodus date about 1420BC? [Wilson].
* * * * *
There is, of course, a great deal of other historical or archaeological information which provides dates for events in other cultures besides the Egyptian - or in what became, Hebrew or Jewish culture. It is possible to find that things become worse, instead of better, more so with the dates around 1250BC. Here is various information which could easily surround an Exodus date of about 1250BC, not from Egypt, but from Greece, or, Troy.
We find in Wood's book on Troy, that Iphigenia was sacrificed about 1250BC as part of the prelude to the Greek expedition against Troy. By or after 1300BC, the Egyptians had been bothered by the largely unspecified "Sea People", or, the Sea Raiders, on whom Velikovsky wrote as he searched for coherent dates.
Was there, around 1300BC, a rebuilding of Pylos? When was the first destruction of Thebes? When was the greatest period of Mycenaean building - 1300BC-1250BC? Wood says that after 1300BC, Mycenaean society was under stress. Wood tends to date the fall of Troy about 1260BC, which fits with some chronology gained from Hittite letters. And possibly with information on the reign of Hattusilis III, when Hittite relations with the kingdom of Ahhiyawa (Greeks) were becoming hostile. One date for the Trojan War is 1250BC-1240BC [Mellersh].
Archaeologically, the Troy that the Greek poet Homer wrote about was Troy VI, which had its phase of life around 1375BC to 1250BC. The island of Lesbos was close, and Lesbos was sacked around 1250BC (Homer suggests, by Achilles). One god-figure for Lesbos was the Bronze-Age god, Smintheus, a powerful inflictor and averter of plague: the Greeks at Troy had prayed to him for relief.
About a date, 1250BC. The Encyclopedia Britannica says an early date of Exodus could be based on 480 years elapsing from Exodus to Solomon's building his temple. Such dating could make Exodus about 1440BC, in the time of Tuthmosis III. But would such a dating give the destruction of the cities the Jews claimed to have captured as occurring about 1250BC, not 1400BC?
About 1250BC: The Greeks sought commercial advantage at the entrance of the Black Sea. [Mellersh]. Wood suggests that from 3600BC, Troy had been established by Neolithic settlers, from Kum Tepe by the Dardenelles. Troy was destined to be sacked at least nine times. By 2200BC, Troy was a royal citadel. When did the Greeks lay it to siege? Some 164 places settled by Greeks sent troops to wage war on Troy, according to listings given by the Greek poet, Homer. About 1300BC, Hittite tablets clearly refer to the Achaeans and their King, Agamemnon; some writers suggest that the pattern of Greek places that sent ships to Troy corresponds closely to then-settled areas now rediscovered by archaeology.
By 1250BC, large scale grain cargoes were sent from Ugarit to Hittite country, due to a famine. About 1250BC, Hittites were in danger of being swept away by the Sea People. The Philistines were one of the Sea Peoples invading Palestine and they gave areas of Palestine their name. The Philistines settled on the coast, and then spread inland, using iron weapons, but new pottery, as they adopted Canaanite culture. About 1250BC poste, the Philistines settled at Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, in one small strip [Bacon, Atlas]. About 1250BC, there was an actual earthquake at Troy. [Wood].
Problems continue. Mosaic Law was revealed in about 1350BC (an early date?) but this conflicts with the history of the Sea Peoples. [Bacon, Atlas]. The Sea People apparently had many different origins and were on the move around 1250BC, due to unclear economic and social pressures. It appears that Dorians, Aeolians and Ionians moved into Greece and the Aegean Islands. They probably destroyed the Mycenaeans and drove them east. Thraco-Phrygians were driven into Anatolia, later to bring down the Hittites. Some homeless peoples swept south to the coasts of Asia Minor and Syria, burning and looting as they went, until they were stopped by Ramses III, in 1174BC on the borders of Egypt.
By 1250BC, we find from a rock relief, a god of a Mesopotamian area, Sharruma, holds his steward-king, Tudhaliys in his embrace; this relief also has ideograms. We find in his book on The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, that a psychologist, Jaynes, has the Trojan War in actuality about 1230 BC, and that by then, the disaster of the eruption destroying Atlantis had destroyed the civilisations supported by "bicameralism". One result: neighbour was to invade neighbour. Migrations went into Ionia and further south. Was there a dramatic change in religious sensibility, from benign to something more fearsome, and what caused it?
Jaynes in 1230 BC has Tukulti-Ninurta I, tyrant of Assyria, with a stone altar dramatically different, for he kneels in supplication before his god - who is represented by an empty throne. The old god has gone; the bicameral tradition has broken down. Tukulti is Nimrod in the Old Testament and King Ninos in Greek Myths. Nimrod had contact with some of the descendants of Noah's sons (?); and in the Bible, Nimrod or Nimrod's father was the first "mighty man" after the great flood.
Modern scholars feel that the Iliad had been transmitted in the oral tradition by Greek bards by about 1230BC, when contemporary Hittite tablets allow inferences to be made about cross-correspondences. (But it remains difficult to follow the history of Greek literacy-illiteracy, and I have read one recently-publishing English classics scholar who skips over about seven centuries of Greek illiteracy prior to Homer in just one unsatisfying sentence).
1275BC is near one "late date" for Exodus, and this give the conquest of Canaan about 1235BC. Some evidence exists here concerning some destruction of Canaanite cities. Here, one could dwell on books attempting to give a track for the Jews' progress from Egypt to Jericho. However, patterns of any interest are rather disturbed here, of course, by Salibi's controversial view that Moses and the Jews quite simply forgot their way home, and ended in an area foreign to them, when they had originally come from areas south of Mecca, on the south-west coasts of the Arabian Red Sea. [Salibi, The Bible Came From Arabia].
1400BC: One date for Joshua conquering Canaan is about 1400BC, while Joshua dies in 1380BC. [Packer et al]. But how did the newly-arriving Israelites continue to avoid the armies of Tuthmosis III and his son, Amenhopis II, who also was warlike? Or, did it happen that the Israelites prevailed while the unwarlike Akhenaten (1353BC-1335BC) was preoccupied with heresies, and Armarna? *
The Israelites, in the form of Tiye, et al, were obviously into the idea of a single god... or more importantly their own private god. These were the days of every city, state, and Elks lodge had their own god. For the most part, everyone tolerated everyone else's god... and while there may have been competition for the hearts and minds of ignorant people... the fact of the matter was that few, if any, people would claim that there only existed a single god. They might, and probably did, claim that their god was better than your god, but not that your god did not exist. So what changed? What happened to make the likes of Tiye and her Israelite brethren so intent upon the idea that everyone else had to adhere to just one god, and that all the other gods who had had their moments... must now be discarded?
Taking on the role of "there is only one god, and our is it", the Hebrews effectively challenged every single member of the human race at the time. Insisting upon a single god was throwing a glove in the face of any and everyone. It was an extreme measure... and there really doesn't seem to be any good reason to insist upon such things... at least, a good reason from the viewpoint of the Hebrews.
On the other hand, if the god who was insisting that there was only one god... was a dysfunctional ego maniac... and that the idea of his brother, nephews, and so forth could hold forth with as much importance as he... then this monotheistic endorsing god... Aten, Jehovah, Enlil (or whatever other name)... might well begin insisting to this followers that they should forget tolerance as a peace keeping technique, should instead raise holy hell with the rest of the world, and thereafter insist on the "my way is the only way." The Hebrews just had the bad luck to be "chosen" by Enlil for his nefarious purposes.
As for why the Hebrews would even buy such a egocentric point of view... they did get the title of "chosen" -- and this is always a cool idea for many people... who desperately want to be superior to others. The problem, of course, is that the idea has really not worked out that well... thus far.
Generation No. 50-51
The following departs somewhat from line of descent we’ve been following. It is shown here in brief format in order to complete the line of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt pharaohs... and the manner in which they led to the 19th Dynasty of Egypt. The new pharaohs were (in order):
1 - Smenkhkare (Akenkhares) (1361 BC) -- probably Generation No. 50 (with Moses)
2 - Possibly Neferneferuaten, a female Pharaoh (possibly Nefertiti, or Meki-taten)
3 - Tutankhamen (Tutankhamen) (Nebkheperure) (1361-1352 BC) (Generation 51)
4 - Aye (Amunpthis) (1352-1348 BC) Kheperkheprure (brother of Tiye, of Hebrew origin)
5 - Horemheb (Meryamun) (1348-1335 BC) (Commoner, Army commander-in-chief)
Someone who was not a pharaoh, but who was absolutely essential to the continuation of the royal lines is Kiya-tasherit, the daughter of Moses and Miriam (aka Akhenaten and Mery-amon). The line of descent from her is next on the agenda... particularly when she marries Rama (Aram/Arni), the descendant of Hezron and Kanita, and when her departure from Egypt is contemporaneous with the:
END OF THE 18TH DYNASTY OF EGYPT
Askenasi = Hebrews
It is the eagle that directly denotes Akhenaton whose name contains the word for "eagle" (Ikh or Akh) and which also mean the "eye."
Akhenaten's rituals included hymns. He is believed to have composed the "Great Hymn to the Sun" around 1340 B.C. which is noteworthy for its cosmotheistic approach to understanding the world. The hymn, which presents the universal power of the sun as the creator of the natural world, is similar to the famous Psalm 104, and scholars believe it may have directly influenced the Biblical verse.
As translated by Isaac Asimov in The Egyptians, the "Great Hymn to the Sun" reads: "The world came into being by thy hand . . . Thou art lifetime thy own self; For one lives through thee . . . Since thou didst found the earth; And raise them up for thy son; Who came forth from thy body: The king ...."
At daybreak, when thou arisest on the horizon, When thou shinest as the Aton by day, Thou drivest away the darkness and givest thy rays...
- The first lines of the opening verse from Akhenaton's "Hymn to Aten," that is the basis of the Old Testament's Song of Solomon
Quotes: "True wisdom is less presuming than folly. The wise man doubteth often, and changeth his mind; the fool is obstinate, and doubteth not; he knoweth all things but his own ignorance." "The ambitious will always be first in the crowd; he presseth forward, he looketh not behind him. More anguish is it to his mind to see one before him, than joy to leave thousands at a distance." "As the ostrich when pursued hideth his head, but forgetteth his body; so the fears of a coward expose him to danger." "Say not that honor is the child of boldness, nor believe thou that the hazard of life alone can pay the price of it: it is not to the action that it is due, but to the manner of performing it." "Indulge not thyself in the passion of anger; it is whetting a sword to wound thine own breast, or murder thy friend." "As the whirlwind in its fury teareth up trees, and deformeth the face of nature, or as an earthquake in its convulsions overturneth whole cities; so the rage of an angry man throweth mischief around him." See more famous quotes by
Comparison of Akhnaton’s love him to Aton And Psalm CIV from the Christian bible –Line by line … Akhanton’s Hymn – The world is in darkness like the dead. Every lion cometh forth from his den; all serpents sting. Darkness reigns. Psalm CIV – Thou makest the darkness and it is night, wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth. The young lions roar after their prey; they seek their meat from God. ********************************************** Akhnaton’s Hymn – When Thou risest in the horizon … the darkness is banished … Then in all the world they do their work. Psalm CIV – The sun riseth, they get them away, and lay them down in their dens. Man goeth forth unto his work, and to his labour until the evening. *********************************************** Akhanton’s Hymn – All trees and plants flourish, … the birds flutter in their marshes … All sheep dance upon their feet. Psalm CIV – The trees of the Lord are full of sap … wherein the birds make their nests … The high hills are a refuge for the wild goats. *********************************************** Akhanton’s Hymn – The ships sail upstream and down-stream alike … The fish in the river leap up before Thee; and Thy rays are in the midst of the great sea. Psalm CIV – Younder is the sea, great an dwide, wherein are … both small and great beasts. There go the ships … *********************************************** Akhanton’s Hymn – How manifold are all Thy works! … Thous didst create the earth according to They desire – men, all cattle, … all that are upon the earth … Psalm CIV – O Lord, how manifold are Thy works! In wisdom hast Thou made them all. The earth is full of Thy creatures *********************************************** Akhanton’s Hymn – Thou has set a Nile in heaven that it may fall for them, making floods upon the mountains .. and watering their fields. The Nile in heaven is for the service of the strangers, and for the cattle of every land. Psalm CIV – He watereith the hills from above: the earth is filled with the fruit of They works. He bringeth forth grass for the cattle and green herb for the service of men. *********************************************** Akhanton’s Hymn – Thou markets the seasons… Thou hast made the distant heaven in order to rise therein … dawning, shining afar off, and returning. Psalm CIV – He appointed the moon for certain seasons, and the sun knoweth his going down. ************************************************ Akhanton’s Hymn – The world is in They hand, even as Thou hast made them. When thou hast risen they live: when Thou settest they die .. By The man liveth. Psalm CIV – Thou wait all upon Thee … When Thou givest them (food) they gather it; and when Thou openest Thy hand they are filled with good. When Thou hidest Thy face they are troubled: when Thou takest away their breath they die.
* Ahkenaten wanted to continue the grand building projects like his predecessors so he could have a lot of temples, etc.
He built two temples, both very humble, both in Amarna. You are fully wrong here. Between his father and the Ramsites, Akhenaten is more like a builder of a few log cabins and a chapel, than of skyscrapers and pyramids. ...His "predecessors" were Solomon, Isaac and the Hyksos.
* He then goes off and builds his own city (named Ahkenaten (called Amarna today), after his godly self) in the middle of the desert, away from resources. Shipping stuff to his city is expensive and hard work... and the nobles were sort of obligated to move there.
1: The city did not have the same name as him. 2: Away from resources? The Nile was the resource. 3: Who gives a damn if "Nobles" are inconvenienced? Akhenaten's dad, Amenhotep III was the supreme ruler of that world, and married a Mittani princess, along with many other women, and died an irresponsible old insane crazy-man, who had Mittani idols shipped to him as he decomposed (He was the biblical Solomon). He is the reason why Egypt was politically faltering, because his story is that of a man who rules the world and becomes decadent in his old age. Akhenaten had to overcome scheming priests, the death of his older brother, and his own youth. Akhenaten did not call himself God, but said that it was he who understood what RA,
His cross [the "ANKH"] is also meant to symbolize the numeral 1O (Ten), another insignia of Aten or Aton (Ten)
"Cult of Aton"
The word Mor or Mer, also referred directly to the Giza Pyramid and to the keepers of the knowledge of the pyramid. Therefore, it is a word that connects to secret societies and their knowledge (for example Merovingian).
666 - ("The Holy Crown")
It is the sum of the Hebrew term nezer ha-kodesch - that means "The Holy Crown." This term can be found throughout Masonic Temples and inscriptions. The "Holy Crown" is of Akhenaton and his descendants in the Cult of Aton. The symbol here of the cross has little to do with Christianity as we know it. If it were an Ankh, all would have been revealed long ago.
*: Some scholars do identify Mummy 61074, found in KV55, an unfinished tomb in the Valley of the Kings, as Akhenaten's.
Pope Paul VI -
The Breastplate of judgment worn by the Jewish high priest, called the Urim and Thummim, meaning emblems of royalty and truth, was also borrowed from Egypt, as we learn from these names, which are derived from the Egyptian words OURO, King, and THMEI, justice or truth...god Horus-Ra is Ouro, and the goddess with the feather on her head is Thmei
The Pope has, from the inception of the St. Peter / Simon, been referred to as Servus Servorurm Dei - "Servant of the Servants of God"
On the pope's miter is the Latin motto: Vicarius Filii Dei, that means "Vicar for the Son of God."
The fictive Saul is a mythograph for SOL - the sun.
He was a non-biographical personification of the chiefs of the Cult of Aton, the real quorum behind the Throne of Judah (Yahud), and the "Davids"
The lion of Africa is used as a seminal symbol by the royal houses because of their descent from the House of David, or more correctly, from the House of Aton. The "Davids," refers to the elites of the Cult of Aton.
.("David" being a title for commanders and chieftains of the Levites and Hyksos pharaohs of Lower Egypt). The Dodge car company's original logo prominently featuring Judaic (Atonist) star of the "Davids." Now replaced with the martian ram's head in blood-red colors. The ram is also symbol of the sun god Aton; but is as well a symbol of Christ : the innocent lamb/ram who tokk away the sins of the world, as in the Hebraic Sacrifice after Abraham's example of Issac.
The star, was an ancient term denoting an Essene Master. The star is not "Judaic" in the sense learned and accepted today. It is the royal Star of David, that is of the House of Aton.
The term "Star" was used in the earliest times by hard-line Essenes and Jews in reference to their lineage of Messianic leaders. These men were not thought to have come from god. They were merely tribal or clan leaders in line from "David."
_____________________________________________The StuartsThe monument to the Catholic Stuart Dynasty of Scotland and England, in Rome. The Stuarts were one of many "Dragon" dynasties ruling the world. The word stuart means "steward," signifying those who rule in place of another, or who officiate for another higher more elusive authority. Interestingly, the Stuarts were known as the "Jacobite" Kings, referring to the father of the Israelites (Atonists). The British flag is today referred to as the "Union Jack" for the same reason. Another Stuart symbol was the white rose. The Stuart Kings were of Breton heritage, and were closely allied to the noble families of Boulogne and Jerusalem, and their background was largely Templar-inspired - Laurence Gardner (Bloodline of the Holy Grail)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the ceremonies, festivities and city monuments associated with the ‘sister’ American and French Revolutions display Masonic ideas and imagery and…are heavily tinged with ‘Egyptian’ connotations and symbols -
The U.S. Statue of Liberty is an Egyptian symbol that also connotes the Cult of Aton, the Scottish Free Masons, who are the hidden owners and rulers in America. The star that the statue is erected upon symbolizes Sirius.
The term "Neo-Con" is simply a new term for Atonist. No one in the White House, like NASA (a division of the Executive Branch of the Amerian government), serves the true interests of the American people. Theirs is the New World Order.
The 9 tail feathers represent the 9 degrees of the Illuminati (Atonist) Lodges.
The Scottish Masonic Order believes it secretly rules the U.S.A.
Nov 2 10 6:52 AM
Nov 3 10 2:15 AM
Nov 12 10 11:54 AM
DID THE EXODUS HAPPEN? ANSWERING THE SCEPTICS
Dr. David Lewis
A new wave of scholars is now dogmatically declaring that the Exodus never took place. They insist it’s just a myth concocted centuries later in the time of Josiah to justify the existence of a Jewish state. Some of these new sceptics, such as Zeev Hertzog and Israel I Finkelstein of Tel Aviv University, are Jewish themselves!The implications of their teaching are profound. They insist that, historically, there really is no such thing as a Jewish or Israelite people descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. There never was an Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob. Moses was a myth, and never wrote the first five books of the Bible. The so-called Israelites are just Canaanites that emerged in Palestine, were joined by a few nomads, and concocted a new religion.If these new theories are true, then:The Jewish people have no historical claim to either the land of Canaan, being a nation, or maintaining the State of Israel today. According to the new historians, Israelites aren’t Israelites, just Palestinians.Christians can’t rely on the authority of the Bible if the very events that foreshadow the death and sacrifice of Jesus Christ are myth. The Passover in Exodus 12 points to His death and He observed as a memorial as did Paul’s converts in I Corinthians who recognized vital spiritual lessons in the Hebrew Exodus.The new archaeological theories present a fundamental attack on the very foundations of both Judaism and Christianity.Denial of the Exodus and the reality of the Biblical account is nothing new. Neither are these arguments. The sceptics have been around for over 200 years, and much of their teaching has been the accepted wisdom in universities for a long time. The theories are now being recycled because of a lot of new archaeological evidence that Professor Finkelstein and others have uncovered. This evidence, it is claimed, provides no evidence for the Exodus or the Bible.Are the sceptics right? They are looking at the right evidence, but at the wrong time. Dating in the history of Egypt and Palestine is based on a couple of assumptions that professors have handed down over the decades. First, they assume the Exodus took place, not when the Bible says it did, around 1450-1447 BC but around 1300 BC. The Bible says the Hebrews built the city of Ramesses and that existed around the time of Ramses II who is dated around 1290. There is no evidence of Hebrews or an Exodus at that time.What if, however, the Hebrews built the city of Avaris, which existed before the city of Ramesses? Also, what if the Egyptian chronology itself has been wrongly focused? At the very time the historical establishment was more and more rejecting the Biblical record, a handful of archaeologists were questioning the accepted wisdom. In 1991 a group led by Peter James published a book called Centuries of Darkness. Four years later British archaeologist David Rohl published A Test of Time,marketed in America as Pharaohs and Kings. Both of these books argue, convincingly in my opinion, that the traditional dating of much of ancient history before 1000 BC in most history books is flawed.Both James and Rohl did not start out with an agenda of trying to prove the Bible. They just went to the Egyptian tombs and monuments and concluded that several of the later dynasties ruled side by side. This meant that earlier dynasties were placed anywhere from one hundred to three hundred years further back than they should have been. The three hundred year ‘Dark Age’ which historians describe in Greece, Phoenicia, and other places, shrinks and even disappears.The Pharaoh Shishak who invaded Jerusalem has been identified with Soshenk. But Soshenk never attacked Jerusalem but northern Israel! Another Pharaoh did attack Jerusalem. ..the famous Rameses II. In Egyptian he is Ra Me Shi Sha, the Shishak being a Hebrew nickname for ‘The Destroyer’. Rohl concluded that Shishak was Rameses, that the splendid late Canaanite period was the time of Solomon, that the period of the El Amarna letters was the time of Saul and David.Rohl’s biggest discovery, though, was in finding the evidence for the Exodus in the Thirteenth Dynasty. His findings are summarized by John Fulton, a supporter of David Rohl:‘Before Moses, the Bible records that the Israelites were enslaved by their Egyptian hosts (Exodus 1:8-14). In the Brooklyn Museum (p.276, fig. 310) resides a papyrus scroll numbered Brooklyn 35:1446 which was acquired in the late 19th century by Charles Wilbour. This dates to the reign of Sobekhotep III, the predecessor of Neferhotep I and so the pharaoh who reigned one generation before Moses. This papyrus is a decree by the pharaoh for a transfer of slaves. Of the 95 names of slaves mentioned in the letter, 50% are Semitic in origin. What is more, it lists the names of these slaves in the original Semitic language and then adds the Egyptian name each had been assigned, which is something the Bible records the Egyptians as doing, cf. Joseph’s name given to him by pharaoh (Genesis 41:45). Some of the Semitic names are biblical and include:- Menahem, Issachar, Asher, and Shiprah (cf. Exodus 1:15-21).That 50% of the names are Israelite means that there must have been avery large group of them in the Egyptian Delta at that time, corroborating the testimony of Exodus 1:7 which alludes to how numerous the Israelites became. The sceptics look for Israel in the Egypt of the Nineteenth Dynasty and remain sceptics, because the proof is in the Egypt of the Thirteenth Dynasty. The site of Avaris has been uncovered by the Austrian archaeologist Manfred Bietak in the land of Goshen underneath that of the city of Ramesses.
Bietak is best known as the director of the Austrian excavations at two sites in the Nile delta: Tell El-Dab'a, which was the location of Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos period; and Piramesse, which was the capital of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. The site was also most probably the naval base Peru-nefer of Thutmosis III and Amenhotep II. A palace precinct of those kings, furnished with Minoan frescoes was one of the most important discoveries. [Bietak has also conducted excavations in western Thebes (Luqsor), where he discovered the huge tomb of Ankh-Hor, Chief steward of the Divine Wife of Amun Nitokris (26th Dynasty).]
It provides plenty of proof, says Fulton, for Israel’s presence and sufferings in Egypt:‘The people who lived in Avaris were not Egyptian but Asiatic Palestinian or Syrian [perhaps "HITTITE"]. The finds there included numerous pottery fragments of Palestinian origin. Several factors about the graves were particularly fascinating:- 65% of the burials were of children under 18 months of age, the normal for this period being 20-30%. Could this be due to the killing of the male Israelite children by the Egyptians, recorded in Exodus 1:22? A disproportionately high number of adult women as opposed to adult men are buried here, again pointing to the slaughter of male Israelite babies. There are large numbers of long-haired Asiatic sheep buried which indicate these people to be shepherds. Large numbers of weapons found in the male graves indicate the warlike nature of the people.’According to the Bible, Moses was bom around 1527 BC, in the reign of Neferhotep I. A few fragments of ancient records from a Jewish historian called Artapanus were preserved by the Catholic historian Eusebius. They say that the Pharaoh’s daughter at the time Moses was born was called Merris. She married the Pharaoh Khenephres, also called Sobekhotep IV.Moses or Mousos, meanwhile became a great general who invaded Nubia and Ethiopia. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 2.10.1-2 tells the story. The Ethiopians had invaded Egypt and had practically overrun the country:‘The Egyptians, under this sad oppression, betook themselves to their oracles and prophecies; and when God had given them this counsel, to make use of Moses the Hebrew, and take his assistance, the king commanded his daughter to produce him, that he might be the general of their army ... So Moses ... cheerfully undertook the business’ and defeated the African invaders by marching through a snake-infested region and taking them by surprise: ‘When he had therefore proceeded thus on his journey, he came upon the Ethiopians before they expected him; and, joining battle with them, he beat them, and deprived them of the hopes they had of success against the Egyptians, and went on in overthrowing their cities, and indeed made a great slaughter of these Ethiopians.’Josephus was right. A monument in the British Museum tells of Khanferre or Khenephres invading Sudan and Ethiopia, the only Thirteenth Dynasty ruler to do so. Remains of an Egyptian government building with the Pharaoh’s statue has been found hundreds of miles south of known Egyptian territoySobekhotep IV/Khenephres was the [co-]Pharaoh of the Oppression from whom Moses fled, about 1487 BC. The forty years Moses spent in Midian were likely to have been 1487-1447 BC. The Pharaoh of the Exodus was Dudimose. Fulton records that the Austrians found evidence both of God’s slaying of the firstborn and the sudden departure of Israel from Goshen:‘The Tenth Plague to be sent on Egypt just before the Exodus was the plague on the first-born, recorded in Exodus 12:29,30. At the end of stratum G/l at Tell ed-Daba or the ancient city of Avaris (p.293), archaeologists found shallow burial pits into which the victims of some terrible disaster had been thrown. These death pits were not carefully organized internments; the bodies were simply thrown in on top of one another. Could these be the burial pits of the first-born Egyptians? What is more, immediately after this disaster, the remaining population left Avaris en masse; this fits perfectly with the Exodus of the Israelites following the final terrible plague.’Manetho, the Egyptian historian wrote how Egypt collapsed in the reign of Dudimose:‘Tutimaos: In his reign, for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us; and unexpectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders of obscure race marched in confidence of victory against our land (Egypt). By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the gods and treated all our natives with cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others.’
The invaders were/ MAY HAVE BEEN the Amalekites Israel encountered after leaving Egypt. They found Egypt, devastated by Divine judgment an easy prey.
‘The continuing archaeological discoveries’ says Fulton, ‘here in the ancient city of Avaris mirror exactly the early Israelites revealed in the Old Testament. For two centuries no evidence was found for the Israelites when looking in the strata of the 19th Dynasty. Now that the chronologies have begun to be amended and the sojourn in Egypt placed in the 12th and 13th Dynasties, we have a wealth of archaeological evidence corroborating the Biblical account.’
Nov 12 10 12:20 PM
notes from History Channel program 2006
The documentary sets out to explain Exodus using science, history and archeology.
The story of Exodus, the 2nd book of the Bible, begins with the plight of the
descendents of Jacob in Egypt. Joseph, the next to youngest son of Jacob (Israel)
is sold into slavery by some of his brothers. Joseph rises to a great position of
leadership, perhaps second only to the pharoah.
The Bible says that a pharoah rose up that did not know Joseph. The Egyptians
feared the Israelites in their land and oppressed them, eventually heading toward
infantcide of male children. The midwives refused to kill the Hebrew males. One
male child born to Levites was kept hidden for three months and then set to float
down the Nile where the daughter of pharoah found him and raised him as her own.
This was the great, great grandson of Jacob, Moses.
Evidence presented as:
A. Discovered in 1947, the Stele of Ahmose, 1500BC, describes a catastrophic
event on Egypt. It's in the Cairo Museum. - Pharao Ahmoses
Sequenenre Tao II - skull crushed by enemy axe, possibly by departing Hebrews
Ahmoses - brother of Moses - expelled a foreign nation from Eqypt,
Hyksos Period, 1750-1500BC.
B. Avaris - Capital of Hyksos - discovered in the 1960's.
C. Bible says "Exodus" / Egypt says Hyksos "expulsion"
D. Seal of Pharaoh - 9 seals found in Avaris - Jacob (Yakov) only time a Hebrew name appears.
Avaris off limits to general public - plowed and reseeded every year.
E. Serabit El Khadim - 400km south of the Nile delta in the Sinai - turquoise mines.
Israelites didn't use hieroglyphics - Biblical God "El" found in Serabit Slavery inscription.
F. Santorini volcano 1600-1500BC - Pumice appears in Avaris - 1500BC
Earthquake storms... Nile delta on a fault line.
1) Nile turned to blood - gas leaks like Lake Manura and Lake Nyos in Cameron
in 1984 and 1986 - dissolved iron forms iron hydroxide, depletes oxygen, kills fish
2) frog infestation - frogs got out of the water...
5) epedemic (mass graves at Avaris found)
6) boils and blisters - 1986 Lake Nyos, Cameron - CO2 resulted in boils
7) hail - unusual - ice and fire together - volcanic hail - ecrecyian (sp?)
G. Hyksos period papyrus - IPUWER plagues papyrus - describes strange hail
8) locust - migrate in swarms - cold weather make them land enmasse
9) darkness - Santorini - 40km top to bottom 200km across ash cloud, pumice found in Avaris.
H. Santorni Pumice in Nile delta - Smithsonian Prof. Jean-Daniel Stanley
10) first Passover - Eqyptians slept (EX 12:29)
- carbon dioxide - Lake Nyos, Cameron 21 August 1986 - visible fog, killed hundreds
- only male selectively - Egyptian first born - privileged position, slept in low
beds - graves of males at Avaris support this. Others slept on carts or roofs.
I. Male plague - mass graves, only male found at Avaris.
J. Ahmose - son died young - Prince Sapaik 12 years old - EX 12:29
K. El Arish inscription - Lake El Balah
L. Yam Suf (Reed Sea) - Lake El Balah
M. Some left for Greece - 1972 under Santorini map found connecting Egypt to Greece.
N. Grave Stele of Mycenae - images on gravestone - "movie" of the parting of the sea.
0. Mount Sinai - Hashem El Tarif
1) 15km/day - 210 km into desert EX 3:1-2
Moses tended Midianite territory - Timna - exception
2) 45 km from Timna (local flock grazing practices - max distance)
Deut 1:2 - Mountain of God is an 11 day journey from Kadesh Barnea -
Oasis of Tela Kadok - North Central Sinai (spelling needs to be verified, can't read my writing)
3) 165km from Kadesh Barnea
- Holy Mountain - surrounded by sanctuaries - huge plateau - large cleft/natural podium
Ark of the Covenant - artifacts
National Archaelogical Museum - Athens
Nov 12 10 12:45 PM
The Tell of the HyenaYears ago Dr. Bietak, Director of the Institute of Egyptology of the University of Vienna and the Austrian Archaeological Institute in Cairo, published the results of his excavations at Tell ad-Dab'a (Tell of the Hyena), about two kilometers south of the Qantir site, Eastern Delta. He had found a clear sequence of occupation: over the remains of the Middle Kingdom, a Semitic cultural layer associated with Palestine and Syria - traces of occupation by the Hyksos - and, after a long hiatus, a powerful reconstruction at the time of Ramses II . The news is that recent studies by magnetometer, with the decisive intervention of the German archaeologist Prof. Edgar Pusch, have allowed a glimpse of the lost city of Ramses, and surveys performed in situ have identified what was the course of the Nile at the time, thus leading to gather a data set highly relevant. (See bibliography).The silting of the Pelusiac arm of the NileAccording to Dr. Bietak, in the XIIth century B.C., the eastern arm of the Nile, called the "Waters of Ra", and then leading to the sea near the later city of Pelusium (Tell el-Farama), future key of the Eastern Delta, began to silt. Herculean efforts were made to dredge it, as evidenced by the landfills still be seen in the area, but in the end, there was no choice but to abandon the struggle: the Nile had irreversibly opened its way to the sea by a new arm, later called Tanite Arm (on the map, in blue, dashed).There have not yet been published documents describing these works, or alluding to their cost, which must be gigantic. Necessarily had to affect the economic crisis that hinders much of the reigns of the XXth Dynasty.A dramatic dilemmaOnce dried the "Waters of Ra", one of two things: either changing back the course of the Nile, or changing the city. At some point it was decided to build a new capital precisely on the banks of the new main course of the Nile, later on called tanitic arm, having been built on its banks a city that in Greek would be named Tanis. In Egyptian Dja'net. The Bible calls it Zoan.
Nov 12 10 1:48 PM
Nov 12 10 2:05 PM
"Rb1" Haplogroup has it irigins in Euro-West Asia.
Basques : The Hittites originated from the Pyanées, went north to the Isles and eventually East to Gobekli Tepe. The Hyksos were the children of Israel (Hebrao) who came to Egypt by Invitation of their brother Yuhu (Joseph), the Egyptian Overseer. Their grand-ancestor was Abraham. Abram and Lot were from Haran. They were Hittite. Moses, who became Pharoah, was of this lineage. When the pagan's resisted the worship of the "One-God" ATON (Adonoi) they pushed the Hyksos out of Egypt along with anyone who followed ATON. (This is the story of Genesis.)
Nov 21 10 10:46 AM
Feb 4 11 3:42 AM
According to legend, the illuminated beings traveled from the neighboring star, Sirius, and established the original Sirian-Egyptian civilization.
The ancient Egyptians could access the untapped power of Zero Point energy, the source of Creation (genesis) in our Universe, and the secret Sirian technology required to shift gravitational fields and particulate matter.
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